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Instructions to writer: this is a peer respond, please respond to Jeannette and Johana with a minimum of 150 words to each peer and at least 1 academic resource to
This was the topic to discuss:
Theory Development and Evaluation
Examine the science and art of theory development and evaluation.
Please respond individually to each peer. Must meet the following:
You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.
All replies must be constructive and use literature where possible.
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This’s Jeannette Discussion Post ↓
Examine the science and art of theory development and evaluation.
Theory development is the process used to create, modify, or refine a theory. Theory development involves several stages which are start with concept analysis, concepts are refined, how concepts are related and proposed. Types of theory are descriptive, explanatory, predictive, and prescriptive. Descriptive theory describes, observe, and name concepts. Explanatory theory is the relationships between concepts. Predictive describe causal or consequential relationships. Prescriptive is the activities to reach goals. An existing theory is identified then the components are analyzed for use in new context based on observation and experience. Concepts, assumptions, and propositions are redefined, and a new nursing theory developed.
The effort of humans to create theories is formalized in the sciences and social sciences as scholars seek to understand and predict human behavior (Redmond, 2022). Theories are still developed and adopted by others when those theories demonstrate value in explaining and/or predicting the world around us. The theorist has observed and learned from other people, and in so doing, produces a theory that explains or predicts the target of the theorist’s attention (Redmond, 2022). Theorists can also use previous theories as the foundation for new or revised theories, perhaps integrating new discoveries, additional concepts, or different applications in the revised theory (Redmond, 2022). Developing the theory requires additional research to find the answer to a question, and subsequent results allow for additions to the theory. The Wheel of Science is meant to reflect the process by which we seek, develop, and find truth or knowledge (Redmond, 2022). The four places of the wheel hypotheses, research/observation, generalizations/deductions, or theory (Redmond, 2022). Established theory and tests it’s applicability to some other concepts or situation, thus move on in the wheel toward developing research questions and/or hypotheses. The wheel collect data and make observations,
produce generalizations, and finally either validate/reject the theory or offer a revision. Theories
provide a unifying framework from which to conduct research (Redmond, 2022). Systematic literature review articles can be broadly classified as domain-based, theory-based, and method-based. These categories of systematic literature reviews, meta-analytical reviews are also increasingly popular in many different subject areas. The purpose of a theory was formulated in specifies context or situation in which it should be applied (Redmond, 2022). Theoretical definitions description of the phenomenon. Operational definitions identification of empirical referent.
Theory evaluation is the process of systematically examining a theory. The examination includes of origins, meaning, logical adequacy, usefulness, generalizability, and testability. The purpose of theory evaluation is to identify a theory’s usefulness in guiding in practice, research, education, and administration.
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2021). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence.
Redmond, M. (2022, November 21). University Library: Iowa State University. University Library | Iowa State University. Retrieved from https://www.lib.iastate.edu/
StudeerSnel. (2022). 3 theory development, analysis and evaluation – week 3: Theory development, analysis and evaluation. Theory. Retrieved from https://www.studocu.com/en-ca/document/algonquin-college/theory-in-nursing/3-theory-development-analysis-and-evaluation/3681589
This’s Johana Discussion Post ↓
The Science and Art of Theory Development and Evaluation
Examining theory development involves the integration of many categories and structures. Theory development is the product of research, which is a systematic inquiry process. Each nursing conceptual model is made up of concepts and propositions that are more abstract and general than a theory (Butts & Rich, 2015). Theories are developed through a melding of science and art in the form of creative conversion of ideas stemming from confrontational facts observed in practice and in the literature. Theory development also may involve deductive reasoning from one or more general concepts and propositions to a specific set of concepts and propositions. In theory development, conceptual models are widely used, and they refer to the very abstract and general work from which theories are derived (Butts & Rich, 2015). Advanced practice nurses (APNs) can create conceptual theoretical empirical structures for their own studies designed to test an existing theory. APNs certainly may construct conceptual theoretical empirical structures and conduct research independently, but they may be more successful if they form partnerships. These partnerships can be with various healthcare professionals like nurse researchers who are fully prepared to conduct research through research training in a Doctor of Philosophy degree or other educational programs.
The science and art of evaluation involve different criteria. Evaluating these structures for theory generation and theory testing is a five-step process that requires thinking critically and making judgments (Butts & Rich, 2015). These steps are the evaluation of the conceptual theoretical and empirical linkages, evaluation of the theory, evaluation of the empirical indicators, evaluation of research findings, and evaluation of the utility and soundness of the conceptual model (Butts & Rich, 2015). In step 1 the conceptual model is explicitly identified and a clear and concise overview of the content of the conceptual model is given. Step 2 Refers to the extent of the social and theoretical importance of the theory. Step 3 refers to the appropriateness of the empirical indicators. Step 4 refers to the extent to which the data agree with the theory. And lastly, step 5 discusses the extent to which the research supports the usefulness and soundness of the conceptual model (Butts & Rich, 2015). A good example of this process in which we use evaluation theory is the interventions we use in our practice. Difficult interventions are commonly used in the healthcare environment. Complex intervention research can take an efficacy, effectiveness, theory-based, and systems perspective (Skivington et al., 2021). The framework used for these interventions involves a gap analysis to identify developments in the methods and practice since the previous framework was published, a full-day expert workshop, and a redraft using findings from the previous stages, followed by a final expert review (Skivington et al., 2021). The framework divides complex intervention research into four phases: development or identification of the intervention, feasibility, evaluation, and implementation (Skivington et al., 2021). To conclude, evaluation is a difficult process that involves a lot of research, conceptual models, and empirical indicators.
Butts, J. & Rich, K. (2015).
Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (3rd ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN: 9781284112245
Skivington K., Matthews L., Simpson S.A., Craig P., Baird J., Blazeby J.M., Boyd K.A., Craig N., French D.P., McIntosh E., Petticrew M., Rycroft-Malone J., White M., & Moore L. (2021). A new framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions: update of Medical Research Council guidance.