Choose one diagnosis from the Psychotic Disorders group
As you will learn throughout the program, the diagnosis of a variety of psychiatric illnesses is not always an easy or straightforward process. Multiple observations and assessment methods are often employed to reach a diagnosis. This approach can include the use of standardized assessment instruments. This then aids you in defining a treatment plan and choosing specific treatment plans to use in the care of your clients.
You are tasked with identifying a standardized assessment instrument/tool to measure the disorders listed for each week. You will keep these instruments in the form of a “portfolio” that you can use in your clinical practice to assess clients who present with a variety of symptoms.
Instrument/ Tool criteria:
For each assessment, you are tasked with selecting, you will identify an instrument and:
- List what DSM diagnosis the tool/instrument is used for.
- Identify an assessment/diagnosis instrument.
- Appraise a scholarly, peer-reviewed article that addresses the use of the instrument to support your choice as an evidence-based instrument for practice.
- Evaluate the instrument’s appropriateness for diagnosing the condition it is designed to assess or if the developers of the instrument reported that the instrument is only part of a comprehensive assessment for the disorder.
- Describe whether or not the instrument can be used to measure patient response to therapy/treatment or if it is strictly for assessment and diagnosis.
- Discuss the psychometrics/scoring of the instrument, including reliability and validity.
- Discuss any limitations associated with the use of the instrument.
- Include a link to view the assessment if possible.
Anxiety and Related Disorders
Appropriateness for Dx:
Response to Therapy/Treatment:
Student Example Anxiety and Related Disorders
Instrument: Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN)
Article: Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory
Appropriateness for Dx: This tool is meant for
screening of individuals with social phobia and assignment of a severity score (Connor et al., 2000). The tool was created in congruence with DSM-4 but is consistent with the DSM-5 diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, minus some minor changes (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA], 2016). Although the study is outdated, Duke University School of Medicine (2020) acknowledges that the tool is still relevant and utilized by their Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Program.
Response to Therapy/Treatment: The SPIN is appropriate for testing treatment response and through studies has proven sensitive to symptom changes over time. Changes in scores are able to determine treatment efficiency (Connor et al., 2000).
Psychometrics: The tool is self-administered and consists of 17 separate statements regarding problems a patient may exhibit if they have social phobia. The statement is then rated on how much it has bothered the individual in the last week, from ‘not at all’ (0) to ‘extremely’ (4). Any score over 21 is considered clinically significant. In the study, the assessment tool was able to effectively separate individuals with and without social phobia. Validity is strong in regard to detecting the severity of illness and is sensitive to symptom reductions during treatment. The scale shows significant correlation with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test, The Brief Social Phobia Scale and The Fear Questionnaire social phobia subscale (Connor et al., 2000).
Limitations: Limitations exist in the tool’s alignment with DSM-4 instead of the more recent edition, although differences are very minor (SAMHSA, 2016). With a cutoff score of 19, sensitivity and specificity were good, but some individuals consider the cutoff score to be 15, in which these measures are weaker (Connor et al., 2000).
Connor, K., Davidson, J., Churchill, E., Sherwood, A., Foa, E., & Wisler, R. (2000).
Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory.
British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 379-386.