Project b

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Correct sections pointed out in the 513 document attached using sample chapter attached,go through the capstone resources.

Chapter 2
Summary Literature Review
Comment by Gloria Ohmart: Please review an example Chapter 2 which shows how this chapter should begin.




Lateral violence (LV) is a devastating phenomenon in the nursing workplace. Also known as ‘horizontal violence’ or ‘workplace bullying,’ LV is disruptive and inappropriate behavior demonstrated in the workplace by one employee to another who is in either an equal or lesser position (Coursey, Rodriguez, Dieckmann, & Austin, 2013. Lateral workplace violence is harmful. It has adverse effects on employees, clients, and the overall organizations they work for. From the literature searches, the most affected nurses are new employees. In contrast, others may experience this violence in the form of being allocated heavy workloads unjustly, being neglected when requesting something, and oppression by use of power. Nursing employees have the right to mitigate such violence by reporting various instances or creating an environment that ensures they are also respected as individuals. Moreover, nurse leaders should mitigate lateral workplace violence by educating workers on the right strategies, creating policies against this lateral violence, and collaborating with employees to ensure fairness, dignity, and respect. By doing so, it will vastly reduce possible future incidents of lateral workplace violence.

Programmatic Outcomes required to be addressed in Chapter 2 Comment by Gloria Ohmart: Follow the example of chapter 2 and using the Capstone Writing Resource that I am attaching, your Chapter 2 will provide literature that is pertinent to your topic, and theoretical framework.

Evidence Based practice

Healthcare quality spans multiple disciplines. As healthcare quality efforts have evolved in both nursing and the entire healthcare team, variations are noted within and between the disciplinary perspectives. In nursing, quality began with Florence Nightingale. Nightingale, among the first to earn credit for developing a theoretical approach to quality improvement, addressed compromises to nursing and health quality by identifying and working to eliminate factors that hinder reparative processes.

The
Donabedian model is a conceptual model that provides a framework for examining health services and evaluating quality of health care. According to the model, information about quality of care can be drawn from three categories: “structure,” “process,” and “outcomes. (Donabedian, 1988) Structure describes the context in which care is delivered, including hospital buildings, staff, financing, and equipment. Process denotes the transactions between patients and providers throughout the delivery of healthcare.

Every American has a definition or personal view of high-quality health care. For some individuals, such a definition revolves around the ability to go to the provider or hospital of their choice; for others, access to specific types of treatment is paramount (Butts & Rich 2013) Outcomes refer to the effects of healthcare on the health status of patients and populations.


Management & Organizational Leadership Specialization (L


)
Comment by Gloria Ohmart: Chapter 2 is not structured by the Program outcomes. Note the subheading on the sample chapter 2.


One very common theory that is applicable to leadership is The Transactional theories
, also referred to as Management theories or exchange leadership theories, revolve around the role of supervision, organization, and teamwork. These leadership theories consider rewards and punishments as the basis for leadership actions. This is one of the often-used theories in business, as well as healthcare settings and the proponents of this leadership style use rewards and punishments to motivate employees. Staff under this leadership style are often encouraged/ motivated to be self-developed and all of these will help to promote a quality health care environment.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

The purpose of this project is to identify causes of nurse burnout in our organization and to implement strategies that will alleviate the issues. This literature review will focus on the topic of burnout and its implication in healthcare facilities. The literature review’s purpose is to highlight what has already been researched in terms of active intervention that can be applied in addressing burnout and improving the quality of care provided.



In identifying the literature that will be used in the study, the search involved an inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the inclusion criteria, all the studies had to be not older than five years, written in English, peer-reviewed, and addressing burnout in healthcare facilities. The databases that were used are BMC, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. The search utilized keywords that include “burnout,” “healthcare quality,” “patient satisfaction,” “patient safety,” “Compassion Fatigue,” and “COVID-19.” The literature review addressed the conceptual framework of the study, intervention strategies, compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout, COVID-19 and burnout, burnout and patient safety, and burnout and patient satisfaction.



Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework that will be applied in the research is the Quality Health Outcomes Model (QHOM). QHOM touches on several aspects that show the association between the context or system, client characteristics, healthcare interventions, and patient outcomes. The model posits that the quality of the provider’s services is essential in ensuring excellent outcomes and patient satisfaction.

DesHarnais (2011) provides a conceptual framework and definitions of quality. The author states that Donabedian provided definitions of quality that reflect the goals and values of the current medical care system and those that encompass the broader society it serves. DesHarnais (2011) writes that Donabedian used three aspects of care, namely, structure, process, and outcomes. Rebar (2019) defines

quality, as well as its implications in the provision of care. The author provides the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine definition of healthcare quality. Healthcare quality is defined as the degree to which healthcare services for populations and individuals increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes consistent with current professional knowledge. Rebar writes that quality entails timeliness, patient-centeredness, equity, efficiency, and effectiveness. Patient satisfaction that is connected to the perceived quality of care drives market competition and reimbursement.

Burnout Survey

There are several burnout surveys available to use for assessing the level of burnout with staff. According to Halbesleben and Demerouti (2005), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is most commonly used, however, researchers have criticisms. The MBI uses three subscales of measurement: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Researchers have criticized these scaled based on the EE and DP questions being negatively worded, whereas PA is positively worded and the MBI only focuses on affective components of EE (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). According to Halbesleben and Demerouti (2005), several researchers believe EE should include cognitive and physical exhaustion. One downfall of using MBI for organizations is the costs.

The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) (Appendix A) was developed to overcome the problems with MBI. This inventory consists of 16 questions using two subscales, exhaustion and disengagement. In contrast to MBI, the exhaustion questions address both cognitive and physical components of exhaustion and the wording is balanced resulting in a broader conceptualization of burnout (Halbesleben & Demerouti, 2005). In a study done by Halbesleben and Demerouti, evidence supported the reliability, factorial validity and construct validity of OLBI making this inventory reliable for assess burnout. Tipa et al. (2019) state OLBI provides a high scale reliability and can be used as an alternative to the MBI.

Intervention Strategies

An article by Reith, T., P. (2018) focuses on burnout in the United States and provides causes, implications, and strategies to tackle the issue. The strategies include involving leadership, wise choice of incentives for practitioners, encouraging work-life balance, encouraging peer support, providing resources for mental health and self-care, and addressing burnout from the onset of medical training.

Cur (2020) states that burnout is real, and it is characterized by reduced efficiency, detachment, and exhaustion. The condition should be addressed as soon as the symptoms are identified, but the best approach is prevention. Prevention is possible if all healthcare providers develop a greater awareness of the issue. When they are burnt out, the behavior of practitioners may cause them to be shunned and criticized by their colleagues. Still, if the behavior is recognized as related to burnout, they can be supported and helped instead.

Kim et al. (2019) conducted a sub-study of a more extensive cross-sectional study to identify the factors that are associated with burnout in healthcare practitioners engaged in HIV care in Malawi. The study concluded that enhancing the supervisory capacity of health facility managers and having an environment that improved team dynamics can decrease burnout. Van Bogaert (2017) adds that nurses have access to opportunities for learning, relevant information, and personal development and supportive relationships with supervisors, interdisciplinary and peers to achieve their goals in an empowered work environment.

Ghavidel et al. (2019) explored the role of organizational management on nurse burnout. The authors proposed the use of appropriate policies in the programs while emphasizing the mental and physical health of the nurses and addressing their issues. Managers of healthcare facilities can sustain and motivate staff.

Aryankhesal et al. (2019) and Zhang et al (2020) both concluded interventions focused on self- care, mindfulness and communication had significant impacts in the reduction of burnout.

Compassion Fatigue (CF) and Burnout

In their systematic review, Cocker and Joss (2016) explore the effectiveness of interventions to reduce compassion fatigue (CF) in community service, emergency, and healthcare workers. The review concludes that evidence supporting CF interventions at social and health care employees is relatively new. The researchers recommend future studies to identify CF interventions for vulnerable workers.

Applying for a systematic review, Van Mol et al. (2015) conducted a study to assess the emotional distress experienced by healthcare practitioners in the ICU, focusing on compassion fatigue, burnout, and preventative strategies. The authors claimed that the actual prevalence of vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout remain open for discussion. The study proposes that a thorough exploration of emotional distress and its correlation to ethical rounds, communication skills, and mindfulness can offer an appropriate starting point for the development of preventative strategies.

Cetrano et al. (2017) conducted a study focusing on compassion satisfaction, burnout, and Compassion Fatigue. Their analysis identified that employees require attention to time pressures, adequate ergonomics conditions, trust, training, and meetings. Addressing future insecurities is vital in addressing Compassion Satisfaction, and burnout.

COVID-19 and Burnout

COVID-19 Hu et al. (2020) conducted a big-scale cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study design to examine mental health, which included fear, depression, anxiety, burnout, and associated factors among the frontline nurses that are caring for coronavirus patients in Wuhan, China. The study concluded that frontline nurses experienced fear and burnout. The authors of the study proposed

interventions at the organizational and national level that will improve mental health during a pandemic by managing and preventing skin lesions, building self-efficacy, and resilience, ensuring frontline work willingness and providing sufficient social support. Morgantini et al. (2020) conducted a cross-sectional survey and discovered that burnout during COVID-19 is prevalent because of high job stress, workload, limited organizational support, and time pressure. Talaee (2020) affirm that there is reliable and valid evidence for the investigation of levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among the healthcare workers engaged with the virus.

Burnout and Patient Safety

Rodrigues, Santos, and Sousa (2017) state that burnout can result in significant vulnerability and unsafe care. Garcia et al. (2019) explored the relationship between burnout and patient safety. Findings in the review demonstrated that high rates of burnout are common among nurses and physicians. It is correlated to external factors that include ineffective interpersonal relationships, long journeys, and high workloads. Excellent patient safety practices are influenced by organized workflows that allow health professionals to be autonomous. The study concluded that there is a relationship between worsening patient safety and high levels of burnout. Dewa et al. (2017) conducted a systematic review that used multiphase screening. In the study, they propose that future research should focus on burnout interventions. The authors claim that future studies should assess physicians’ interventions by focusing on the safety-related quality of care to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. The studies should also emphasize on the relationship between dimensions of burnout and acceptability-related quality of measures.

Burnout and Patient Satisfaction

Copanitsanou, Fotos, and Brokalaki (2017), in their systematic review, focused on the effects of nurses’ work environment on outcomes of both the nurses and patients. The study identified that nurses

who perceive their work environment as good have lower burnout syndrome and higher job satisfaction. Copanitsanou, Fotos, and Brokalaki (2017) conclude that a pleasant work environment has a determinant factor for high care quality and improved outcomes for the nurses. West, Dyrbye, and Shanafelt (2018) add that burnout results in lower patient satisfaction, lower recovery times, medical errors, and lower care quality.

Anagnostopoulos et al. (2012) used a cross-sectional survey in Western Greece to examine the impact of physician burnout on patient satisfaction from consultation in the primary care setting. The study results demonstrated that patient satisfaction is significantly correlated with physician depersonalization and physician emotional exhaustion. Besides, physician depersonalization and emotional exhaustion are significant factors that are associated with patient satisfaction as well as consultation.

Summary

In summary, the literature demonstrates that addressing the issue of burnout experienced by healthcare practitioners improves the quality of care provided to the patients and, in turn, improves patient satisfaction. Key areas addressed in the literature are burnout surveys, intervention strategies, compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout, COVID-19 and burnout, burnout and patient safety, and burnout, and patient satisfaction. Chen et al. (2019) state that there is a possible association between high patient satisfaction and improved outcomes in some patient populations. Using the QHOM theory, the discussion demonstrates that there are interventions that need to be in place to address burnout, which is a crucial factor in addressing patient satisfaction. Organizations need to establish working environments and policies that address the issues highlighted that contribute to burnout. Safety has been identified as a concern in the occurrence of burnout in hospital staff. The priority of leadership in a healthcare facility is accountability for effective care while protecting visitors, employees, and patients (Alert, 2017).

Addressing burnout does not entail having the healthcare leadership coming up with policies and guidelines but also involves the personnel that is affect, ensuring that the staff work together is essential. Mijakoski et al. (2018) write that teamwork can be used to safeguard workers from disengagement, depersonalization, and emotional exhaustion.




Title Comment by Cheryl Rules: Title is indicative of the contents of the study, and should be from 10-15 words in length.

(see best practices for title development below)

Capstone Project

Submitted to Grantham University

Graduate Faculty of the School of XXXXXXXXXXXXX

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Nursing

(Area of Specialization)

by

NAME

Lenexa, Kansas

Month Year

i

26

Rev 4/28/2017

Rev 4/28/2017




Title

The Title is indicative of the contents of the project and should be from 10-15 words in length.

1. A title succinctly and accurately describes the project in no more than 12 words.
Every word should be precise; every word should count. This title, for example, is wordy and too long:
The Effectiveness of Training Teachers in Nonviolent Communication in Reducing High School Violence. This revised title is shorter and more concise:
Reducing High School Violence: The Effects of Training Teachers in Nonviolent Communication. Watch phrases such as “A Study of. . . ” or “Examining the. . .” They use up words without adding content.

2. Use a title that concisely describes the topic addressed in the project and included the variables or theoretical issues under investigation as well as the relationship between them. Note the variables of
violence and
training in nonviolent communication mentioned in the above example.

3. Summarize the main idea simply, and, if possible, “with style” (Publication Manual of the APA, 2010, p. 23).

4. Develop a title that makes sense standing alone without explanation. Note the absence of abbreviations or unusual wording in the above example.

5. Keep in mind that the title is often used as a statement of content for abstracting and reference purposes in various databases. Note how effectively the phrase
reducing high school violence in the example above captures the topic.

6. Additional helpful resources for developing your final title include:

(a) page 23 of The 6th Edition of the
APA Publication Manual (2010)


Abstract

Guidelines: Use a block text format. No indents.

1. Maximum length is 350 words. In the final iteration, it includes all items and is written in past tense.

2. Introduce the project topic briefly. Do not include citations in the abstract.

3. Clearly, articulate the problem statement.

4. State the general methodology (quantitative, qualitative, mixed method).

5. Present key results (for meta-analysis studies include relevant test statistics and
p values).

6. Present conclusions and recommendations for future research.

7. The abstract is a single paragraph on a single page that concisely and accurately summarizes the study without citing references.

8. Sample Abstract (notice the future tense: the study is not yet conducted):

The incidence of high-school violence in the USA has risen dramatically in the past 10 years, both in terms of frequency and severity. Research demonstrates multiple causes and mixed results for the short-term success of educational programs designed to ameliorate this problem. Marshall Rosenberg’s techniques of nonviolent communication have proven beneficial in improving couple and inter-group relations. In this study, standardized test scores will be compared to scores with low levels of violence to schools with high levels of violence. Comment by Cheryl Rules: Explains why the issue is important.

Comment by Cheryl Rules: Explains why there might be reason to try out Rosenberg’s program Comment by Cheryl Rules: Explains how secondary data will be used Comment by Cheryl Rules: When writing chapters 4 and 5 this will be placed into past tense Comment by Cheryl Rules: Explains how the subjects are going to be selected and what will be done with them.

9. Additional helpful resources for developing your abstract include:

(a) Pages 25 – 27 of
The Publication Manual of the APA (2010)



Table of Contents



List of Tables





xii



List of Figures





xiv



Chapter 1: Introduction





1



Background





5



Problem Statement





7



Purpose





12



Theoretical Framework





17



Nature of the
Project





31



Significance of the
Project





32



Definitions





33



Summary





34



Chapter 2: Literature Review





36



Theme/Subtopic [repeat as needed]





36



Summary





49



Chapter 3:
Project

Design





52



Project Design





52



Participants





57



Materials/Instruments





58



Implementation





66



Assumptions and Limitations





68



Ethical Assurances





70



Summary





71



Chapter 4:
Evaluation





72



Evaluation of Project Design





72

Evaluation of Project Implementation……………………………….…………….…76


Summary





81



Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions





82



Implications





82



Recommendations





84



Conclusions





86



Appendixes





88

Oral Presentation…………………………………………………………………… 89

Programmatic Outcomes Self -Assessment………………………………….… 90


Appendix A: Title





89



Appendix B: Title





90

1. Note that only two levels of headings are included in the Table of Contents. Also, none of the headings in the Table of Contents are in bold although they will be in the body of the dissertation manuscript.

2. Most emerging scholars would do well to spend time learning some of the advanced features of Microsoft Word particularly those relating to the creation of a
dynamic table of contents. A dynamic table of contents allows you to move to related parts of the document by clicking on headings or subheadings within the table of contents. It can be used to great advantage as your paper grows and you need to swiftly navigate from one part to the other. In order to create this type of table of contents, you need to develop two sets of skills. First, you will have to learn how to automatically format headings using the Styles menu in Microsoft Word. Second, you will have to learn how to automatically create and format a table of contents in Microsoft Word. You will find the help you need for this by pressing the “?” button in the upper right corner of Word 2007. Use the following search phrases to locate the guidance you need: “style basics in Word” and “create a table of contents.” You may find the following demo helpful.


Demo: Let Word manage your table of contents

3. Creating your table of contents using Microsoft Word’s advanced features gives you the opportunity to review your heading and subheading structure. In addition to examining them for proper APA formatting and clarity, reflect on the organizational issues to which they draw your attention. You may discover there are ways to improve the order of headings and subheadings in your literature review.

4. As you extend the subheading structure of the literature review, you can automatically update your Table of Contents to include the new headings and the revised page numbers as your dissertation grows. If you are using Microsoft Word 2007 all you have to do is right click on the table of contents (assuming it is a dynamic table of contents as described above), select the Update Field option and then select Update Entire Table. If you are using an earlier version of Word, use the help function to learn how to do this in the program you are using. If you discover that text that is not part of your headings and subheadings appears in your table of contents, it is because that text has been formatted as a heading instead of normal text. If you
reformat the offending text as
normal text and update your table of contents, it will disappear.











Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduce the topic in one or more paragraphs (2 pages maximum). Briefly, describe the study topic to establish the main ideas and context. Include appropriate scholarly source citations for each assertion. Provide an overview of what is contained in chapter 1. Comment by Cheryl Rules: The topic must directly reflect the learner’s program of study.

1. Begin with a careful analysis of the guidance offered in the blue text above including the margin comment. Note the following points.

(a) The length range for this section is from a few paragraphs to two pages.

(b) The focus of the introduction is to be the “Project topic” That may seem obvious, but it is easy to include material that is irrelevant or inappropriate for this or any other section of a Project. You should look at each piece of information to determine what it contributes to a discussion of your Project. Use the guidance in this document as an editing checklist to insure you have included all material that is required to frame your project and eliminated all material that is not. Providing extraneous material is a particular problem for both emerging and established scholars. Careful editing and rewriting is the best approach to dealing with this challenge.

(c) The content offered must establish the main ideas and context of the project.

(d) Each assertion is to be backed by scholarly sources.

(e) The introduction section is to wrap up with an overview of what is contained in chapter one.


2. An assertion is a statement or declaration that something is true or correct which is presented without sufficient supporting evidence. In everyday talk, we often make assertions that are without support as a part of normal communication based on “facts” that “everybody knows.” One of the many challenges faced by emerging scholars learning the art of academic writing is to break out of the habit of communicating opinions in favor of arguments for which supporting evidence is available. Reviewers will often challenge unsupported assertions with comments like: “how do you know this is true,” “sources please,” “do not make unfounded assertions,” “this is a bold claim, how can you back it up with evidence” and so on. Before you submit any documents for review, reflect on each sentence you wrote to insure that either the views offered are universally understood (though few are) or are supportable with evidence from scholarly sources or data.

3.
Do not describe the mechanics of your project in the introduction.

4. The
Publication Manual of the APA (2010) offers the following comment: “The introduction to a manuscript does not carry a heading that labels it as the introduction. (The first part of a manuscript is assumed to be the introduction)” (p. 63). As you will note, the chapter one heading contains the word
Introduction, and you will be creating a brief introduction to your project here; however, you will not include a subheading that introduces the introduction under the chapter heading.


5. A project should be about
inquiry, not
advocacy. If you are an advocate for a particular school of thought or for some hoped findings as you begin your project, it means that you believe in them strongly as you begin the work and that you are convinced they form a correct interpretation or outcome even before evaluation of the project is completed. It is vital, however that the evaluation phase of the Capstone be objective, perhaps it is not working. When this happens, you must be prepared to revise your early project to reduce the appearance of an agenda or bias in your perspective as a researcher. While you can try to explain this discrepancy between what is expected and the actual results, it is your obligation to present evidence, not passion, to convince your reading audience.

6. Avoid hyperbole throughout your project report. Hyperbole is a literary device that uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect and is often used to create a narrative hook in several forms of writing. However, it should be avoided in scholarly writing. This can be more challenging than you think for the same reasons that avoiding advocacy is so challenging. You may be very passionate about your topic, and hyperbole comes all too easily as you write about it. Always remember that understatement backed with scholarly sources is far more effective in this context, so make sure that all of the statements included are supported by the compelling evidence presented in a well ordered manner. Broad generalizations about things that “everybody knows” will be frowned upon at every level of review.

7. Avoid
colloquialisms and
jargon throughout your project. The 6th Edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA discusses colloquialisms and jargon on page 68.




Background

Present an overview of why this project is currently of interest. Focus on an area of interest, briefly laying the groundwork for what has been done in the area and why the area is of important social or practical concern, or of theoretical interest.

Include appropriate, recent, scholarly sources to support each assertion
.

1. Begin with a careful analysis of the guidance offered in the blue text above. Note the following points.

(a) The fundamental questions you are to answer in this section are “
why is this project currently of interest” and “
why is the area of important social or practical concern, or of theoretical interest.” Special attention should be paid to the words
currently and
important. In most cases,
currently, refers to the last five years.

(b) The focus of the background section is to be “the area of research interest.”

(c) Briefly, lay a foundation for your project by summarizing what has been done in the area. Cite only the most important sources that provide a well ordered overview of the topic. If this is a topic that is worthy of being examined, developed, or initiated, then most likely a community of scholars have been investigating it or at least investigating areas directly related to your work. Your task is to provide a thumbnail sketch of what has happened to date during their collective inquiry efforts that can provide an intellectual context for your project, identify territory that has not been explored, and tell the reader how previous research on your project will influence your work. You will fill in this sketch during the literature review.

(d) Each
assertion is to be backed by appropriate, recent and
scholarly sources.

2. When your audience finishes reading this section, they should clearly understand why this project is being done. A clearer focus for the project may emerge if you ask yourself why this project is important. You may find that working on this section and those relating to the
problem statement and the
purpose will create a productive synergy. However, it is important to keep these sections from flowing into one another. The key is to focus on the heading you are writing under in each case to avoid unwarranted repetition and so that important material is not misplaced.




Statement of the Problem Comment by Cheryl Rules: Clearly describe and document the need that prompts the Capstone Project and directly leads to its purpose. Please consider: Whose problem is it? What are the potential negative consequences if the project is never conducted? Include appropriate sources to document the existence of a problem worthy of addressing




The length guideline for this section is 250 to 300 words. This is a fairly narrow range, so some careful editing will be required. The goal is to work your problem statement into a concise and compelling presentation of the need for the applied project. This section will include identification of a need, a problem, a void, or a vision of how a process should work.

1. Present the general issue/observation that in theory or practice leads to the need for the applied project (unless considered seminal, citations within the last 5 years are included).

2. Present a focused problem that led to identifying the applied project.

3. As noted below, the key to forming an acceptable problem statement rests within an extensive literature review. The key is to
constantly be on the lookout for problem statement support from the literature.

4. Keep in mind that offering critically reflective paraphrases is preferred to offering direct quotes and that direct quotations should be used very sparingly, i.e. about one for every ten pages. Relying too heavily on quotations indicates an overreliance on the published works of others and shows less of your ability to explain, interpret and critically reflect on the writings of other scholars as you shape your project.

5. As noted in the blue text above, you are to clearly and specifically identify the problem that forms the basis of the applied project using a sentence, “The problem is…[followed by a succinct identification of an identification of a need, a problem, a void, or a vision of how a process should work.]

6. A sample problem statement that illustrates some (but not all) of the concepts discussed above is presented below.

Statement of the Problem
(Example) Comment by Cheryl Rules: This statement of the problem is well within the 250-300 word guide line mentioned in the marginal note beside the blue text above.

Employee turnover rates increased in all industries between 1997 and 2000
(Martel, 2002); and increased turnover reduces organizational profitability, due to the related high recruitment and training costs, which can reach or even exceed a worker’s annual salary (Hillmer, Hillmer, & McRoberts, 2004; Sanford, 2005). Replacing an employee requires advertising the position, time and effort in interviewing and reference checking, time and effort identifying skill shortfalls, and supplying the necessary training (Lazar, 2004; Piotrowski & Plash, 2006; Sagie et al., 2002; Sanford, 2005). With the increasing turnover rates (Martel, 2002), the specific project was to create an educational offering to assist leaders in developing their emotional intelligence (Goleman et al., 2002). Emotional intelligence development would influence employees’ affective commitment, thereby affecting turnover and related loss in profitability (Gardner & Stough, 2003; Morrow, 1993). It would encourage organizations to focus training in this avenue and reduce the costs associated with employee turnover (Lazar, 2004; Piotrowski & Plash, 2006; Sagie et al., 2002; Sanford, 2005). Comment by Cheryl Rules: Note that this is a clearly stated general problem – employee turnover.

Comment by Cheryl Rules: The general problem is described in more specific terms and more citations are offered to thoroughly ground all assertions it in the literature.

Comment by Cheryl Rules: Fifteen citations were used to validate this brief problem statement.

7. You should have at least 5 – 10

good quality sources
such as peer-reviewed journal articles. As your work continues, you will most likely find more recent and more relevant good quality sources than you started with. Keep up-grading the citations used in your problem statement.

The length guideline for this section is 250 to 300 words. This is a fairly narrow range, so some careful editing will be required. The goal is to work your problem statement into a concise and compelling presentation.

8. The problem statement is the first part of
the chain of alignment you must achieve. The chain of alignment requires that each section of your work build on what came before it. The problem description must align with the purpose statement which must align with the nature of the project, which must, in turn, align with the significance of the study, and so on. Without a clear articulation of the problem, the alignment will not be possible. The chain of alignment that begins with a description of the problem and continues on planning and implementation must be respected at all times.

9. In this section, avoid talking about your project design and how you plan to implement the project, just focus on the problem itself, not what you hope to achieve in responding to it. Stay focused on the heading under which you are writing for every part of your paper.




Purpose

The purpose statement is a concise paragraph that describes the intent of the project, and it should flow directly from the problem statement, specifically address the applied project, and reflect the application of theories, principles,

1. The purpose statement should flow directly from the problem statement. There should be clear and obvious
alignment between the two, and that alignment should be tightening and becoming more pronounced as your work progresses.

2. The purpose statement should
specifically address the reason for the project, with emphasis on the word
specifically. There should not be any doubt in your readers’ minds as to the purpose of your applied project. To achieve this level of clarity, you will need to also insure there is no doubt in your mind as to the purpose of your project.

3.
Avoid anthropomorphisms (i.e. assigning human qualities to non-human entities). A Capstone project is not the kind of entity that can seek or investigate. (The word “seek” is often used by beginning academic writers as they describe the purpose of their studies. As they mature as academic writers, the word seek is usually replaced by more appropriate terminology such as investigate or examine and the kind of redundancy illustrated above is avoided. In an applied Capstone project research is not being conducted and these types of words will not be found)

4. Follow the purpose statement with a
brief overview of how, with what, with whom and where (as applicable) the project will be implemented. Identify variables/constructs and/or phenomenon/concept/idea. Since this section is to be a concise paragraph, emphasis must be placed on the word
brief. However, adding these details will give your readers a very clear picture of the purpose of your project.




Theoretical Framework

Discussion reflects an overview of the broad conceptual and/or theoretical area under which the research falls (e.g., social psychology, organizational behavior, experiential learning), and how the research fits with other research in the field. Discussion specifically includes important issues, perspectives, and, if appropriate, controversies in the field. Discussion reflects the author’s knowledge and familiarity with both the historical and current literature. Include appropriate scholarly citations to support the theoretical foundations.

1. There is no stipulated length for your theoretical framework section although most of these range from one to ten pages in length. You will be able to elaborate on the concepts you introduce in this section and greatly strengthen your presentation of the project’s theoretical framework in your
Literature Review.

2. In this section, you are to explain how your project fits with other projects in your area of inquiry. As you
continuously work on your literature review, you will become familiar with the names and publications of theorists and scholars working in the area you have identified. You will also become aware of the current research agendas that are being pursued in this area as it is the research that underpins your applied project. You will make thoughtful decisions about how your project will make a contribution in this context and in the process clarify the boundaries of your theoretical framework.

3. Your discussion is to include an elaboration of “important issues, perspectives, and, if appropriate, controversies in the field.” All fields of inquiry contain scholarly tensions, and some of the primary authors writing about the field may have clearly diverging perspectives. Illuminating existing scholarly tensions and clearly stating your view of the issues involved demonstrates that you have a good grasp of current trends surrounding your project. By the time you reach this level of understanding of current activity in the broad conceptual and/or theoretical area under which your project falls, you will be well prepared to clarify for yourself and others how you will make a contribution to your field through this study.

.




Nature of the Project

Present a brief overview of the research, design, and plans for developing a substantial original applied project (as applicable).

1. The Nature of the Study section should be a concise description of the process that will be used to develop and implement your project. Offer a concise thumbnail sketch of how your project will unfold.





Significance of the Study






Demonstrate why the project is important and describe the contribution(s) to the specific Master’s track.

Definitions

Provide definitions for (a) key operational terms, (b) words used in a unique way, and/or (c) words

not commonly used or understood
. Definitions might include terms related to your field of study, project plan, and/or analytical strategy. Support definitions with citations and/or note when definitions are those of the researcher.

1. Clarify precisely how you will be using the term in your project.

Do not use dictionary definitions for these terms. Offer definitions and elaborations that come from a variety of scholarly sources.

2. The definitions should be written in your own words. Use citations, but refrain from using direct quotes as they can be viewed as evidence that you are over-reliant on the published work of other scholars. Using your own words to paraphrase instead of quoting the work of others demonstrates your ability to explain and interpret the words that are being defined.

3. Assuming your heading structure allows for it, the terms being defined should be presented as a level three heading (see page 62 of the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA.) The terms should be indented, in bold, followed by a period, and the definition should begin on the same line as the heading.

4. Arrange definitions alphabetically.

5. Be consistent in the way you structure and format each entry in your definitions list.

6. Use complete sentences and observe all other rules of grammar when developing your definition list.





Summary


Summarize key points
presented in chapter 1 and include supporting citations. 1. Writing a summary of key points in chapter one is not as easy as it may seem especially if you keep your readers in mind. You do not want to provide a tedious and repetitive copy in your dissertation, but, at the same time, you want them to be prepared to enter into your next chapter. Strive to keep all chapter summaries clear, concise, and fresh.










Chapter 2: Literature Review

Begin with a summary of the purpose statement that leads to a brief explanation of the logical organization of the literature review. Include a paragraph that explains the literature search strategy and describes the sources. Note: Conduct a thorough literature search based on a variety of relevant key words and databases. It is extremely rare for there to be no literature on a topic worthy of study.




Theme/Subtopic [repeat as needed]

Present the theoretical or conceptual framework(s) related to the project. Present historical research as well as research related to the topic of your project published within the last 5 years. Include appropriate scholarly source citations for each assertion. Ensure the discussion has depth and presents a critical analysis and synthesis of the literature that provides a context for the project. Discuss conflicting findings and/or theoretical positions causing intellectual tension in the field. Ensure the discussion is comprehensive, organized, and flows logically. Use themes and/or subtopics as headings. Note: A literature review is a discursive prose, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another. Avoid stringing together articles and beginning every paragraph with the name of a researcher. Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. One should not attempt to list all the material published, but rather synthesize and evaluate the relevant scholarly research according to the guiding concept of your project.

1. The vast majority of sources referred to in the literature review should be from
the last five years. Exceptions to this principle include
seminal sources and sources used to help establish the historical development of various themes. Also, keep in mind that turning to
secondary sources is not a solution to achieving currency in the sources you use.

2. Do not use “Introduction” as a heading, see page 63 of the 6th Edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA. The first part of the chapter is assumed to be the introduction. You may begin writing immediately after the chapter heading.

Begin chapter two with a statement that describes the purpose of the chapter.

In your introductory materials, you will provide a paragraph that explains the literature search strategy and describes the sources, data bases that were searched and so on. Do not attempt to cover everything you did as you develop this description, only describe
the things you did that worked.

3. Keep in mind that a literature review is not a series of mini-book reports. Instead, you need to synthesize. Synthesizing involves taking a group of studies and looking for areas of convergence and divergence. Organize your work around themes not individual pieces of literature. Most emerging scholars find it is far easier to summarize the content of each source they select for a literature review than to offer a synthesis of various themes that run through multiple sources. Fortunately, developing a synthesis of important themes found in a variety of sources is a well-developed art form in academia.

4. Discuss conflicting findings and/or theoretical positions causing intellectual tension in the field. When scholars investigate a complex topic, they seldom all agree, and you will find evidence of differing perspectives and conclusions in the literature. Take special note of these, and foreground them as you develop your literature review. By demonstrating your awareness of different scholarly perspectives, you demonstrate an awareness of the complexities associated with your topic. These differences can also help refine your perspective and understanding of the nuances in the field, and it is important that you relate your conclusions about the various sides of the arguments, less as your opinion but rather as a criticism of earlier studies.

5. Keep the review in the past tense. Instead of writing: “A number of scholars are writing about researcher reflexivity” you should write: “A number of scholars have written about researcher reflexivity.” By the time a source is published, the author’s actions are in the past.

6. The
APA Manual has a must read the section on writing style beginning on page 65. Topics covered include continuity in the presentation of ideas, smoothness of expression, tone, the economy of expression, precision and clarity, linguistic devices and strategies to improve writing style.

7. When presenting a paraphrase, do not begin the sentence by naming the author you are paraphrasing. The focus of the sentence should not be on the author but rather on the important thoughts offered in the paraphrase. Also, by beginning sentences with the authors’ names, your voice can be lost or dominated by the scholars you are paraphrasing. Here is an

incorrect
example. Creswell (2009) points out that there are three major forms of research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed. Here is the

correct
example. There are three major forms of research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed (Creswell, 2009). In the second version, your voice is heard and is given support by Creswell.

8. The article:

Use of First Person in APA Style
answers questions about this important issue. It is worth keeping this article handy because you will often have questions about this aspect of academic writing. Also, avoid using first-person constructions masking as the third person. Typical examples include “this researcher,” “this learner,” “this observer” and so on. Here is an incorrect example.

This researcher
examined the data and drew the following conclusions. Here is a
correct example. The data was examined in order to reach the following conclusions. The assumption is always made that anything in the document represents your thoughts or opinions, so using a first person construction masking as the third person is redundant and reduces the scholarly tone of your writing.

9. Remember that a paragraph is at least three sentences. You may have to review your work to check for this. Avoid the use of casual language, jargon, and colloquialisms. See page 68 of the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA. Review the guidelines for numbers presented as numerals found on page 111 of the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA as well as the guidelines for numbers expressed as words on page 112.

10. Use an ampersand inside a parenthetical citation such as (Gaul, Gaul & Borg, 2003). Use the word “and” when the citation is part of the sentence. For example: according to Gaul, Gaul, and Borg (2003) Note: see comment about reducing the emphasis on authors above.

11. Review the proper use of italics as discussed on pages 104-106 of the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the APA. Note in particular the use of italics when presenting titles and describing anchors of scale.

Theme/Subtopic [repeat as needed]

Present the theoretical or conceptual framework(s) related to the study.

Theme/Subtopic [repeat as needed]

Theme/Subtopic [repeat as needed]

Summary






Chapter 3: Project Design

Begin with an introduction and/or restatement of the research problem and purpose. Conclude the introduction with a brief overview of the chapter.



Project Plan

Accurately describe the plan for the applied project. This section should be very detailed with every step fully described and supported by the literature. Substantiate the appropriateness of the plan; the strategy for developing the project, engaging stakeholders, providing education, implementing changes, etc. Each step toward researching, designing, and implementing the applied project should be fully elucidated here.







Participants

Describe the participants in your project and the role they will play in it). In projects, the human role may be minimal. It is fine to say this but do outline exactly what this minimal role will be.




Materials/Instruments

In this section, include a description of the materials (order sets, teaching plans, windshield surveys, etc.)

Evaluation

Describe the planned evaluation of the efficacy of the project in detail. Actual evaluation will be presented in Chapter 4. Here, describe what will be done. Some evaluative pieces may be included in the actual implementation of the project, and these must be spelled out here.




Assumptions and Limitations

Thoroughly discuss the assumptions about the design and process and what problems may be anticipated to arise given your project and implementation




Ethical Assurances

While applied projects do not involve human subjects thoroughly explore any ethical considerations here




Summary

Summarize key points presented in chapter 3 and provide supporting citations for key points.






Chapter 4: Evaluation

Begin the discussion with a brief overview of the purpose of the applied project and provide a brief overview of the chapter. Organize the chapter around the actual implementation of the project. Describe each step of the implementation in detail. All of the aspects of scholarly writing noted above will continue in this chapter.




Results

Once implemented, describe (without analysis) the change




Evaluation of Findings

This section is used to analyze the process change that has been implemented. The discussion will be expanded in Chapter 5. Interpret results in light of the theory (or theories) and/or the conceptual framework(s) you have identified. Describe whether the analysis of the process change was expected given the literature and provide potential explanations for unexpected or conflicting responses.




Summary

Discussion summarizes key points presented in Chapter 4.


Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions




Begin the discussion with a brief review of the problem statement, purpose, process, and ethical dimensions, and conclude the introduction with a brief overview of the chapter. All of the aspects of scholarly writing noted above will continue in this chapter.

Implications

How will the project you have implemented impact the nursing body of

knowledge and future practice?




Recommendations

Present all recommendations for practical applications of the study.
Note: support all recommendations with the analysis of the project. Present recommendations for future changes.




Conclusions

In this section, summarize all key points in Chapter 5.

R
eview all chapters. Change all current tense to past tense.




References

Reference 1

Reference 2

Reference n…

Instructions
: All resources cited in the dissertation must be included in the list of references.

List all references in APA format with the exception noted below. For each reference listed, there must be at least one corresponding citation within the body of the text, and vice-versa.

Formatting:
Single space each reference citation, along with a .5 inch hanging indent; double space between consecutive references in the reference list (See the Doctoral Candidacy Resource Guide located in the Dissertation Center for NCU exceptions to APA format).

Tips: Sort in alpha surname/title order. Only capitalize the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any. Do not bold the title. Know when to italicize and when not to (i.e., periodical/non-periodical/publication versus book/report/paper). Italicize volume (i.e.,
Journal Name 4, pp. 12-22.). Please refer to the APA Manual, 6th edition and the Writing Center for additional APA guidance.

Note: APA6 requires a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) be provided if one has been assigned (see page 187-192).

Example (note single-space references, with double-spacing in-between):

Ahn, J. (2004). Electronic portfolios: Blending technology, accountability, and assessment.
T.H.E. Journal, 31(9), 12-18.

U.S. Government Printing Office. (2006).
Catalog of U.S. Government publications: New electronic titles.

Winslade, J., & Monk, G. (2001).
Narrative mediation: A new approach to conflict resolution. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.






Appendixes

[Each Appendix referenced in the text should appear in this section at the end of the manuscript. Appendixes should be listed in the order in which they are referenced in the text. ]




Appendix A: Title (and all subsequent B, C, etc)

[Insert/type Appendix A content here]

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