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PLEASE SEE THE ATTACHED DOCUMENTS, THOSE ARE A PREVIOUS RESEARCH SUBMITTED TO MY CLASS, AFTER READ THEM ANSWER THE QUESTION BELOW ACCORDINGLY TO THOSE RESEARCH INFORMATION.

1- Appropriate data collection is a critical component in obtaining useful data for your research. Using your proposed research topic and research questions, explain your plan for data collection. Discuss potential issues in your data collection plan and your plans to overcome these challenges. Then, respond to at least two or your classmates’ posts and analyze their plan for data collection. Are their plans appropriate for their research project? Do you have any suggestions for improvement?

NO PLAGIO PLEASE MORE THAN 10 %

-NO PLAGIO PLEASE MORE THAN 10 % THAN 5 YEARS OLD

-PLEASE ANSWER THE ABOVE QUESTION AS REQUESTED IN 1 PAGE AND THEN IN A SECOND PAGE CREATE 2 REPLIES TO PEERS

DUE DATE FEBRUARY 1, 2023

Research Proposal Literature Review (Rough Draft)

Breast Cancer

Lisney Rodriguez Gutierrez

West Coast University

Research Utilization

Professor: Jennifer Ogier

January 20, 2023

Introduction

There is more to breast cancer than just gender, as age is also a significant determinant. For every eight women, one would be affected with breast cancer in their lifetime, as per the statistics in the united states (Hu et al., 2021). Men are not an exemption as breast cancer can also infect them. Other factors such as obesity, menopause, alcohol, and genes also are factors that can expose victims to the risks of being infected. Breast cancer is by far one of the leading causes of death in women and also the third lethal type of cancer; the literature review thus is up to shed light on not only the symptoms and predisposing factors but also the best way to control and prevent breast cancer in the current generation.

Causes of Breast Cancer

As earlier mentioned in the introduction, there are several ways linked to contracting breast cancer; the common ones are genetic mutations and inheritance of genes such as the BRCA 1 and 2, which collectively contribute to about fifteen percent of infected victims (Harbeck et al., 2019). In addition, breast cancer can be contracted through certain lifestyles, such as the consumption of drugs and alcohol, especially in women, which is closely associated with the age of the victims. Referring to the research questions, age is also a significant concern in breast cancer; women above the age of thirty-five are predisposed to breast cancer, accompanied by factors such as the use of contraceptives and birth control, and menopause also contributes to most of the infections.

Research suggests that long-term exposure to toxins and chemicals increases breast cancer risk. The chemicals might be insecticides, medicines, or pollutants. Talking of pollutants, global warming, and climate change is also a factor as the current generation is exposed to polluted air; this explains why breast cancer has constantly been rising, corresponding to global warming (Waks et al., 2019). Response to research questions, the longer people live, the more their bodies are exposed to pollutants and toxins, and the more the chances of genetic mutations, thus exposing them to infections such as breast cancer. In that case, age is a significant factor of consideration; therefore, women younger than forty years are less likely to contract cancer.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Technology is on the rise, and the medical field is not an exemption, especially with cancer. A lot of successful medical research gives a positive perspective on how people view cancer. The process can be slowed down and treated; this is a medical breakthrough. Some practical and reliable forms of treating breast cancer are surgery, where the cancerous tissue is operated out of the body (Arnold et al., 2022). Where surgical operation does not work, other forms such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and tools such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) are used.

Relevance of Research

Reviewed literature in this paper pinpoints the importance of understanding breast cancer as it is one of the leading causes of death in women. Understanding the diseases opens a new perspective of getting to the root cause of the problem, thus creating a possibility and opportunity for researchers to derive possible ways to treat and control the diseases (Britt et al., 2020). The research also highlights and clears misconceptions about breast cancer regarding who can get it and explains the factors that predispose victims to infections. About the research questions, women below forty years have reduced chances of contracting the diseases.

Conclusion

To round it up, breast cancer is a significant health issue responsible for many deaths worldwide. The research has thus stated the information known about breast cancer, thus allowing researchers to fill in the gaps with what is not known to ensure the disease is controlled and victims are cured (Yedjou et al., 2019). Technology is advancing faster than ever, and with help from such research, the world will soon be free from it. The rest of the population can watch out for victims by offering financial, social, spiritual, and moral support and being with them every step.

References

Arnold, M., Morgan, E., Rumgay, H., Mafra, A., Singh, D., Laversanne, M., … &Soerjomataram, I. (2022). The current and future burden of breast cancer: Global statistics for 2020 and 2040. 
The Breast
66, 15-23.

Britt, K. L., Cuzick, J., & Phillips, K. A. (2020). Critical steps for effective breast cancer prevention. 
Nature Reviews Cancer
20(8), 417-436.

Harbeck, N., Penault-Llorca, F., Cortes, J., Gnant, M., Houssami, N., Poortmans, P., … & Cardoso, F. (2019). Breast cancer (Primer). 
Nature Reviews: Disease Primers
5(1).

Hu, C., Hart, S. N., Gnanaolivu, R., Huang, H., Lee, K. Y., Na, J., … & Couch, F. J. (2021). A population-based study of genes previously implicated in breast cancer. 
New England Journal of Medicine
384(5), 440–451.

Walks, A. G., & Winer, E. P. (2019). Breast cancer treatment: a review. 
Jama
321(3), 288-300.

Yedjou, C. G., Sims, J. N., Miele, L., Noubissi, F., Lowe, L., Fonseca, D. D., … &Tchounwou, P. B. (2019). Health and racial disparity in breast cancer. 
Breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance, 31-49.

Breast Cancer using oral contraceptives

Lisney Rodriguez Gutierrez

West Coast University

NURS 540 Research Utilization

Professor: Jennifer Ogier

January 27, 2023

Breast Cancer using oral contraceptives

Introduction

There is more to breast cancer than just gender, as age is also a major determinant. For every eight women, one would be affected with breast cancer in their lifetime, as per the statistics in the United States (Hu et al., 2021). Men are not an exemption as breast cancer can also affect them. Other factors such as obesity, menopause, alcohol, and genes also are factors that can expose victims to the risks of being affected. Breast cancer is by far one of the leading causes of death in women and also the third lethal type of cancer; the literature is directed not only toward the symptoms and predisposing factors but also the best way to control and prevent breast cancer in the current generation.

Causes of Breast Cancer

There are several ways linked to the advancements of breast cancer; the common ones are genetic mutations and inheritance of genes such as the BRCA 1 and 2, which collectively attributes to about fifteen percent of affected victims (Harbeck et al., 2019). Breast cancer can develop through certain risk factors, such as direct family history, no breastfeeding, age, and genetics. Referring to the research questions, age is also a major area of concern in breast cancer; women above the age of thirty-five are predisposed to breast cancer, accompanied by factors such as the use of contraceptives and birth control; menopause also contributes to most of the cancer developments.

Narrowing down to a specific cause, which is the use of oral contraceptives. Epidemiological studies have it that women who have used oral contraceptives have a seven percent increase in developing breast cancer, in comparison to those using other forms of administration or those who never use contraceptives. Regardless of age, the use of oral contraceptives has played a significant role in the development of breast cancer in women. Contraceptives have various ways of meeting their purpose, however, those that interfere with hormones in the body result in a greater risk of breast cancer (Kanadys et al., 2021)

Diagnosis and Treatment

Technological advancements have immensely contributed to the healthcare industry. There is a lot of successful medical research that gives a positive perspective on how people look at cancer. The process can not only be slowed down but also treated; this is a breakthrough in medicine. Practical measures for combating breast cancer include surgery, where part of the cancerous cells are removed from the body (Arnold et al., 2022). Where surgical operation does not work, other forms such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and the use of tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used.

Relevance of Research

Reviewed literature in this paper pinpoints the importance of understanding breast cancer as it is one of the leading causes of death in women. Understanding breast cancer opens a new perspective of getting to the root cause of the problem, thus creating a possibility and opportunity for researchers to derive possible ways to treat and control breast cancer (Britt et al., 2020). The research also highlights and clears misconceptions about breast cancer in terms of who can get it and explains the factors that predispose victims to its advancements. In relation to the research questions, women who have been in use or exposed to oral contraceptives have a seven percent higher chance of developing breast cancer as compared to those who have never used them.

Conclusion

Breast cancer is a major health issue that is responsible for many deaths across the world. The research has thus stated the information known about breast cancer, thus allowing researchers to fill in the gaps with what is not known to ensure breast cancer is controlled and victims are cured (Yedjou et al., 2019). Technology is advancing faster than ever, and with help from such research, the world will soon be free from it, especially now that the main causes have been singled out. The rest of the population can watch out for victims by offering financial, social, spiritual, and moral support and being with them every step of the way.

References

Arnold, M., Morgan, E., Rumgay, H., Mafra, A., Singh, D., Laversanne, M., … &Soerjomataram, I. (2022). The current and future burden of breast cancer: Global statistics for 2020 and 2040.
The Breast
66, 15-23.

Britt, K. L., Cuzick, J., & Phillips, K. A. (2020). Key steps for effective breast cancer prevention. 
Nature Reviews Cancer
20(8), 417-436.

Harbeck, N., Penault-Llorca, F., Cortes, J., Gnant, M., Houssami, N., & Poortmans, P. (2019). K. 857 Ruddy, J. Tsang, F. Cardoso. 
Breast cancer, Nat. Rev. Dis. Primer
5, 1-31.

Hu, C., Hart, S. N., Gnanaolivu, R., Huang, H., Lee, K. Y., Na, J., … & Couch, F. J. (2021). A population-based study of genes previously implicated in breast cancer. 
New England Journal of Medicine
384(5), 440–451.

Kanadys, W., Barańska, A., Malm, M., Błaszczuk, A., Polz-Dacewicz, M., Janiszewska, M., &Jędrych, M. (2021). Use of oral contraceptives as a potential risk factor for breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies up to 2010. 
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
18(9), 4638.

Waks, A. G., & Winer, E. P. (2019). Breast cancer treatment: a review. 
Jama
321(3), 288-300.

Yedjou, C. G., Sims, J. N., Miele, L., Noubissi, F., Lowe, L., Fonseca, D. D., … &Tchounwou, P. B. (2019). Health and racial disparity in breast cancer. 
Breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance: Challenges and progress, 31-49.

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