I need to do my research paper using this book – Crawford. M (2017) Transformation: Women gender and psychology. You can choose any core concept between chapter 7 to 10 in this book. Choose the core concept and choose any film that you can discuss about that your chosen core concept. You need to use lots of terms that mentioned in a text book which is related to the feminism. Pages should be more than 10. Using special terms is mandatory. No plagiarism please. I attached here question paper as well as I attached the example paper as well.
Hi, I need to do my research paper using this book – Crawford. M (2017) Transformation: Women gender and psychology. You can choose any core concept between chapter 7 to 10 in this book. Choose the c
Research Paper Psych 399 Due April 7 Choose a film/TV show that exemplifies a core concept we have discussed in class. Although you want to center your paper on a core concept, you will need to make connection to several concepts/terms we have learned in order to create a robust and in-depth discussion. Requirements: *5-7 Page Paper (plus title page and reference page) *4-6 peer reviewed references (not your textbooks) *APA required format for paper format, citations, references, title page *NO Abstract required. Content – 35 Points Over view of media or issue you are addressing) – 10 Points Introduce the media you are analyzing. You need to provide a succinct summary of the media, and then a focused introduction of the themes and major ideas present in the media that you are analyzing. Make sure to include the year the film was made, genre, and the country it was made in. Remember to include the behind the camera aspect of the film (who is directing it? Who wrote it? Who is in key creative positions?) Analysis – 10 points This is when you connect your analysis of your media with your understanding of the course content. This should include: -theories, concepts and applicable research that has been done on both your specific media (always check to see if others have already written about your media!) and/or in the other media. -theories and major ideas present in your textbooks, our class discussion, class presentations, and/or film we watched in class This Changes Everything. Application – 20 *First person writing can be used (e.g. ‘I statements’ should be used rather than ‘the writer’ when referring to yourself). This is when you demonstrate an in-depth understanding of why analyzing this theme/major idea in media through a feminist lens matters! Include: the strength and weaknesses of using a feminist lens (Why/How is it helpful? Why is it problematic?) critical thought of how the major idea/theme you are analyzing influences the individual/societal beliefs/cultural scaffolding how the influence of the major idea/theme either contributes/challenges the continuum of oppression against women Writing Skills – 5 Points Organization of Ideas, Academic Tone & Writing Style – Points Includes Introduction & Conclusion Ideas are clearly articulated and logically presented There is a “flow” to the paper Vocabulary is clear and appropriate Writing style is interesting to the reader Language Mechanics & APA 7 Format – 5 Points Correct Spelling, Capitalization and Punctuation Grammatical Sentence Structure Paper is formatted in APA 7 (*no abstract needed) Citations and References consistently used and in APA 7 Title page & Reference page in APA 7 Total – 50 Points (Weighting – 25% of Final Grade)
Hi, I need to do my research paper using this book – Crawford. M (2017) Transformation: Women gender and psychology. You can choose any core concept between chapter 7 to 10 in this book. Choose the c
I MAY DESTROY YOU 17 The Rape Myths and Sexual Scripts of Black Women PSY399(B) Karen Nyirarukundo S.I. 137001 Women in all cultural contexts have experienced some form of sexual assault, and this occurance has revealed to be “prevlaent across demorgrapic lines” (Davis et al., 2010). Survivors of sexual assault tend to face multiple consequences including “depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and sucidial ideation” (Davies et al., 2010). Unfortunatley sexual assault is seen in many forms that is experienced in multiple contexts, and is perpetuated quite constistently by our Western societal cultural scaffolding. This forementioned scaffolding is held so deeply in our societal norms, often survivors of sexual assault are seen as active agents of their own assault. Demeaning questions are often asked of survivors such as, “What was she doing that caused that to happen? What was she wearing? What was she doing in that environment knowing this could happen?”. There is no doubt that from these questions, it is safe to assume the majority of our society sees women or men who have experienced sexual assault as active contributors to her assault. When we question women about their sexual assault experiences from a skeptical framework, there is a “second victimization” (Lazard, 2020) occurring that re-traumatizes an individual. Typical assumptions made about sexual assault survivors undeniably contribute to the harmful rape/legitimizing myths that negatively stigmative sexual assult survivors. In regards to black sexual assault survivors, the perception of them is downgraded to be viewed “more negatively and/or blamed more when portrayed as survivors as of aquintance rape and dometic violence” (Donovan, 2011, p. 458). From personal experience, it is easy for me to identify the sexual scripts black women have come to possess in regards to their sexuality and being regarded as hypersexual individuals. One part of that sexual script is to not be considered the typical “desirable body” in society, and so when a sexual assault occurs it is not taken as seriously or disregarded as a consequence of our “hypersexuality”. Crawford (2017) also speaks to this gender stereotype of Black women as she mentions that in the media the portrayal of the “Jezebel” illustrates an over-sexualized Black woman that is blamed for the oppression they face and are often deemed immoral (p. 95-96). Apart from the Jezebel, the “Mammy” depiction of Black women give a simlar illustration to the madonna-whore complex that sees Black women as either pure and virginal (Mammy), or a prostitute like indidivual (Jezebel) that is hypersexual in nature. These damaging stereotypes directly contribute to multiple “gendered racial identities” (Crawford, 2017) that young children and adolescents will resonate with because that is the “representation” they see. Throughout this paper I will examine the series I May Destroy You and discuss the many problematic legitimizing myths illustrated throughout the show. Some of these legitimizing myths include the sexual scripts of Black women, problematic rape myths that contribute to our society’s cultural scaffolding, and also different gender stereotypes Black women face most relevant to the present age. This analysis is essential in understanding the experience of women who experience sexual assault, and stories told in the perspective of women of color need to be especially be uplifted in every possible opportunity. Hopefully with shows similar to this, society will feel empathy rather than judgment for sexual assault survivors. The television series I May Destroy You aired in June 2020 (IMDB, 2020), and was written by the main character Michaela Coel who tackles the sexual scripts black women possess, and dismantles it into something that she makes into her own during the process of her healing. The story surrounds Arabella Essiedue, a young up and coming writer in the process of completing her second book after the success and small celebrity she received from her first one. The first episode is notably titled ‘January 22nd’, the day of her sexual assault, and in this we see the events leading up to it, and directly afterward. Throughout the season which takes place over one year, the audience joins Arabella on her journey of processing her sexual assault and understanding how it has ultimatley changed how she is viewed by others, how she views herself intrinsically, and the content she puts out. The series also focuses on her close friends Kwame and Terry, who leave Arabella to endure several vulnerable situations alone because they had flawed presumptions about her behavior and her sexual script(s). The director and screenwriter of this show, Michaela Coel based this series on a vague depiction of her own sexual assault which occured during her time as a writer on a previous project of hers, Chewing Gum. She does a brilliant job of intertwining the conversation of sexual assault, race, and problematic societal norms into an enjoyable series that makes the audience deeply emotional. As discussed in the film This Changes Everything, the representation behind the camera changes how the story is told, and also how the audience consumes the story. Having a Black women who has experienced sexual assault tell a story like I May Destroy You had an undoubtedly huge effect on how the audience connected to Arabella. There are countless television shows and films that come to mind who often depict Black women as sex workers with “aggressive” attitudes, and this results in little sympathy shown to these characters in the event something bad happens to them. In this series, Coel depicts multiple rape myths that are assumed by many of the characters, and this in turn leads to several painful revelations that each character eventually has. She also does a great job of highlighting her intersectionality and the consistent reminder of her identity through uncomfortable experiences with white individuals. Her portrayal of microaggressions speaks to how nuanced the actions of her white acquaintances/co-workers seem, but in her perspective she highlights how impactful those same actions are. As a Black woman myself, Coel’s story mirrored mine in every sense except for her sexual assault, and I was able to see qualities of myself through Arabella. The connection I felt watching this series supports the same notion that representation really matters both behind and infront of the screen. Her story was so impactful because it gave me a shared sense of womanhood, knowing that I share the same experiences as someone who wrote, directed, and starred in this series. Donovan (2011) speaks to the legitimizing myth of Arabella’s assumed hypersexuality when stating that “the Jezebel stereotypic image portrays Black women as promiscuous, lustful, and hypersexual” (p. 459). Though this myth is upheld in the series, it is depicted from the lens of a Black woman which allows the audience member to empathize rather than chastise Arabella. From this perspective, Coel gives the viewer the ability to witness how an individual can internalize the shame of being a perceived “gatekeeper” in her sexual assault, and the consequences she faces as a result of that internalized stigma. The same is true for her friend Kwame as he grapples with being sexually assaulted by a man he consensually hooked up with. This perspective is so important to have because oftentimes media pigeon holes the types of roles Black women receive, including but not limited to the “Jezebel, Mammy, Matriarch/Sapphire, and Strong Black Woman” (Donovan, 2011, p. 459). Coel is able to portray Arabella as strong and vulnerable, and at the same time also expose how complex she is as an individual. The audience gets a deeper insight to all the layers that make up Arabella instead of the typical portrayal of Black woman that often is one-dimensional in character development. Cis-gendered white men behind the script or camera often depict Black women in typical sterotype roles preveiously mentioned, and the superficial quality of their character usually illustrates them enduring the most pain and/or violence with little reprisal. No attention is paid to how a Black woman herself would view her self-esteem or certain situations she is in, so I commend Coel for rejecting the shallow depictions of Black women, instead allowing the viewer to grow with Arabella through her experiences. Coel also confronts the topic of male sexual assault comitted by another male, and the social implications that has on an individual. Arabella’s close friend Kwame meets up with a date he matched with online and engages in consensual sex in the beginning. As he motions to head out, his date physically overpowers him and sexually assaults him. Once Kwame musters up the courage to talk to the police, he is not taken seriously to the point of blatant disregard. The assumption that men are not victims ties back into the #metoo movement and invalidated men’s experiences regarding sexual assault. Lazard (2020) mentions in her text the troubling reality of male assault victims when results from a survey showed “men are more likely to experience harassment by other men than women” (p. 71). Due to the consequential cultural scaffolding that contributes to the idea that men don’t encounter sexual assault, Kwame is left to deal with his assault quietly with no proper justice sought out or served. Coel’s portryal of sexual assault within the gay community shed light on the heternormative stereotypes our society holds in regards to men experiencing assault. Unfortunately Kwame’s journey of processing his trauma is done behind the scenes, and turned into something sinister once he tries to resolve his pain by having sex with a straight woman in his avoidance of men. We then see a continuum of violence perpetuated against the woman he matches with, who is under the false pretense that she is engaging in sex with a straight man. Though unintentional, Kwame inflicts a form of sexual coercion onto Nilufer by denying her the ability to consent properly. Unfortunately, the audience witnesses a victimized individual trying to rectify his pain by victimizing someone else. A recurring theme that Coel also illustrated throughout her series was the continuum of violence that women face. This is seen through the main character Arabella, her friend Terry, and also the woman Kwame had sex with, Nilufer. This concept discussed in class outlines a continuum of violent/sexual acts that range from “mild or harmless” to violently aggresive acts such as rape or murder (Lazard 2020). As individuals it is important to ask ourselves who in society gets to determine where the line is drawn in relation to acceptable behavior vs. condemnable behavior. Terry experienced this continuum when she engaged in a threesome during a holiday vacation with two men she believed to be strangers but realized they knew each other all along. Realizing it was a ruse to get her to have sex with them caused an internal struggle for Terry as she grappled with being a victim of something, or just naive to the situation. Although the sex Nilufer had with Kwame was consenual, she still felt violated for not being aware of Kwame’s sexual orientation. In doing so, Kwame unknowingly took Nilufer’s agency away by not disclosing his sexual orientation. Although a “less severe” form of sexual violence, Kwame’s intentions were only oriented to suit his own needs/desires, with a complete disregard for how Nilufer would feel. Kwame not believing he had to tell Nilufer about his real intentions speaks to the underlying myth of what we as a society assume consent is. I definitely think Terry’s situation warrants her to be angry and feel violated because she was not fully aware of the two men’s relationship. Conversely with Kwame and Nilufer, their sex was consenual and his sexual history doesn’t needs to be disclosed; but she had a serious problem with him after she found out he was gay and her feelings were completely valid. Coel’s representation of this contiuum of violence sparks the debate of what consent actually means to us, and also how important it is to be fully aware and informed of the sexual experiences we go through. Arabella unfortunatley faces a situation that fits on this continuum during a situation where she has sex with her co-worker Zain, and halfway through he takes off his condom and ejaculates inside of her without her knowledge. Sadly this now makes Arabella a survivor of acquaintance rape with someone she trusted. Davis (2019) calls attention to this form of sexual assault when stating “one form of coercive condom use that has recently garnered media attention is non consensual condom removal, also known as stealthing” (p. 997). Research done by Davis (2019) illustrates a concerning rate of men using coercive condom use in the form of stealthing reportedly since they were 14 years old on multiple occasions (p. 998). Although limited, studies like Davis (2019) elicit my fear for women that engage in “hookup culture” and I can only hope that women are aware of this disgusting behavior and fully trust the individuals they have sex with. Unfortunately it it important to note that a women can have all the awareness and trust to foster a sense of her security, and that still will never prevent a sexual assault from occurring. Although Arabella reacts quite casually in the moment, it’s clear to the viewer that she knows there is something very wrong with Zain’s actions. The realization that what Zain did was a form of sexual assault only dawned on Arabella days after, and unfortunatley she now has to accept her being violated by two predators on separate occasions. Her mental health is undoubtedly affected by these two assaults, and this results in her struggle to be productive in her work/book progress, and in some cases she finds herself not able to pay her bills. Coming to terms with an assault is hard enough, but now Arabella starts to question herself as an individual because this happened more than once. Coel portrays the mental gymnastics that takes place once someone realizes and processes a horrific act like sexual assault. Since our society deems women to have “active-passive heterosexual scripts” (Lazard, 2020), the realization that an assault has occurred may not happen for some individuals. Consent shouldn’t be a difficult concept to grasp, but our society has constantly reconstructed what consent means in the context of sexual assaault, and this causes individuals to question whether their experience were actually valid. In a perfect world, an individual’s actions should never be called into question regardless of what happened, because they did not inflict that violence upon themselves. Sigurvinsdottir et al. (2019) highlight concerns surrounding Arabella’s mental health by their analyses of self-blame and potential suicidality that may occur in Black female sexual assault survivors. They found that woman who are SA survivors develop Behavioural self-blame (BSB) or Character self-blame (CSB), and findings show this stems from Black women recieivng negative responses when disclosing their sexual assault experiences (Sigurvinsdottir et al., 2019). When our experiences as Black women are invalidated, it latently indicates that we are seen as a lesser type of women. Hakimi et al. (2018) speak to the issue of negative reactions elicited by sexual assault disclosure from African American women when they stated “rape myths and exisiting stereoypes about minority women such as “African American women are promiscuous” or Latinas are hypersexual and passionate” can elicit more negative social reactions compared to their white peers” (p. 271). Arabella reporting her sexual assault and being open about it with the people around her dismantles the stigma that is usually held against Black female sexual assault survivors. Though she is associated with being a helpless victim, she instead comes to terms with her experiences and in a way conquers those negative reactions. The director of the show gave a glimpse into how sexual assault survivors navigate life after their attack, and the resilience that the audience gets a chance to witness is admirable. I May Destroy You also does a great job illustrating multiple rape myths, but the most noteworthy one is committed by her love interst, Biagio. Arabella holds back telling Biagio what happened to her until midway through the series because she is scared to confront his reaction. As she musters up the courage to tell the person she trusts and loves, he immediately assumes she is at fault. “I told you to stop taking drugs/drinking” “Why did you not watch your drinks?” were a few of the questions he asked, and he essentially berated her with questions/statements on why she “allowed” that to happen to her. This deeply problematic framework stems from the rape myth of women being active agents in regards to sexual assaults, placing minimal blame on the actual predator. This concept coincides with the neoliberal view of feminism which assumes that women should be in charge of everything in her life, including her getting attacked/assaulted. It is irresponsible to see women as gatekeepers of sexual assault because it is an attack inflicted upon us, and this perspective deems us responsible to stop assaults. Instead of assuming women should be held accountable to stop an assault, individuals need to redirect their judgment towards the predatory individuals committing these assaults. After triggering Arabella with his questions, she understandably cuts him off for a bit and remains distant until she tries to reason with him again. From Biagio’s response, the viewer gets a great illustration of what it looks like to put an individual through a second victimization. This concept describes “the disbelief, victim blame, and lack of sympathy that individuals are frequently exposed to in the aftermath of sexual violence” (Lazard, 2020). The neoliberal framework views sexual assault survivors as active agents, and this modern cultural context likely causes women to interalize shame and guilt as they assume responsibility for an assault. Lazard’s (2020) explanation of victim politics relates well to the immense stigma being placed on Arabella, as she was seen by her partner to be a gatekeeper and active agent in her consent, expected to “monitor not only her behavior but also the behavior of men” (Lazard, 2020). As someone who has a partner, I couldn’t begin to imagine the immense shame and guilt I would feel if I received a response similar to Biagio’s. Coel’s portrayal of partner betrayal in this context is very important for individuals to see because it may help an individual leave relationships that don’t validate and respect their experiences, no matter what happened to them. Having this story told through a feminist lens did a great service to Coel’s ability to tell Arabella’s story in the most complex form, all while adding light humor to such a disheartening theme. There is a huge impact made when someone who can speak from the same race, socioeconomic status, and gender because it gives me hope that more stories like hers will be told in a similar fashion. Coel indeed dictated how I as a viewer saw myself through Arabella, a vulnerable individual figuring out how to appropriately deal with her trauma, all while existing as a Black woman in a predominantly White society. Sexual assault is a very complex thing to deal with, and Coel does a great job of showing the implications of that experience as a Black woman. Her depiction of the continuum of oppression against women shed an important, much needed light on the countless actions women don’t often associate with being oppressive. How we classify that oppression/violence will dictate our beliefs about victimhood and where we fit into that category. Series similar to this need to take it upon themselves to give women, especially women of color, more chances to tell stories through a perspective that is not paid enough attention to in mainstream media. Representations of all individuals are likely to be shown when the cast and crew of a show or film have a wide range of diverse individuals. Marginalized people should have more access to jobs such as showrunners, writers, directors, and producers. I May Destroy You has a Black woman as the director and writer of the show, along with female story consultants. I believe this contributed to this show’s success having a team consisting mainly of women who controlled the narrative and perspective of the series. Coel did a tremendous job depicting the experience of a woman surviving sexual assault, but she also focused on the complexities of Arabella as a Black woman. The friendships she has and the intimate cultural experiences the audience gets to see really speaks to how special having representation can make media. I saw parts of myself through Arabella and her friends because they look like me and share experiences similar to my own. I believe that diversity behind and infront of the camera produces better quality media because it allows viewers like myself to actually connect to the story/characters. References Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Similarities and differences in women’s sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28(4), 323–332. https://doi-org.ezproxy.aec.talonline.ca/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00149.x Caroline Framke (2020, August 19). How Michalea Coel processed trauma and fought to own her story with ‘I May Destroy You’. https://variety.com/2020/tv/features/i-may-destroy-you-michaela-coel-1234739041/ Crawford, M. (2017). Transformations: Women, Gender, and Psychology, 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill Education. Donovan, R. A. (2011). Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students’ Perceptions of Black and White Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(3), 458–468. Hakimi, D., Bryant-Davis, T., Ullman, S. E., & Gobin, R. L. (2018). Relationship between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and mental health outcomes of Black and White female survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(3), 270–275. https://doi-org.ezproxy.aec.talonline.ca/10.1037/tra0000245 IMDB (2020). I may destroy you: eyes, eyes, eyes, eyes. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt11640228/ Lazard, L. (2020). Sexual harassment, psychology and feminism : #MeToo, victim politics and predators in neoliberal times. Palgrave Pivot. Leila Latif (2021, October 19). I may destroy you and how it represents the future of tv. https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20211015-i-may-destroy-you-and-how-it-represents-the-future-of-tv Littleton, H. L., Grills-Taquechel, A. E., Buck, K. S., Rosman, L., & Dodd, J. C. (2013). Health risk behavior and sexual assault among ethnically diverse women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(1), 7–21. https://doi-org.ezproxy.aec.talonline.ca/10.1177/0361684312451842 Ryan Reed (2021, September 19). ‘I may destroy you’ creator Michalea Coel dedicates emmy to sexual assault survivors. https://www.rollingstone.com/tv/tv-news/michaela-coel-may-destroy-you-emmy-award-speech-1229048/ Sigurvinsdottir, R., Ullman, S. E., & Canetto, S. S. (2020). Self-blame, psychological distress, and suicidality among African American female sexual assault survivors. Traumatology, 26(1), 1–10. https://doi-org.ezproxy.aec.talonline.ca/10.1037/trm0000195