According to Marieb, Mitchell, and Smith (2013):
Body cells require an abundant and continuous supply of oxygen. As the cells use oxygen, they release carbon dioxide, a waste product that the body must get rid of. These oxygen-using cellular processes, collectively referred to as cellular respiration, are more appropriately described in conjunction with the topic of cellular metabolism. (p. 538)
The major role of the respiratory system, our focus in this exercise, is to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide. Four distinct processes are associated with respiration:
- Pulmonary ventilation;
- External respiration;
- Respiratory gas transport; and
- Internal respiration.
The learning objective for Week 5 in the laboratory course is to identify the features of the respiratory system. We will look at the histology and anatomy of the lungs and the conducting passageways through the models and microscopic slides seen in your Laboratory Manual. To successfully complete this assignment, first read the following exercise from the Laboratory Manual: Exercise 36: Anatomy of the Respiratory System.
Marieb, E. N., Mitchell, S. J., & Smith, L. A. (2013). Human anatomy & physiology laboratory manual (11th ed.). [Fetal Pig version]. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Student Discussion Assignment
- Identify and describe the anatomical structures that allow for internal and external respiration to occur in humans.
View the anatomical models Figure 36.1, Figure 36.3 (a)and(b),and Figure 36.5 (a) from your Laboratory Manual and identify the structures that are described by the following abbreviated statements. Post your brief responses in the threaded Discussion Area below:
- Lymphoid tissue protecting air passageways
- Increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity
- Covers the glottis during swallowing
- Contains the vocal cords
- Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi
- Balloon-like structures at ends of the respiratory bronchioles
- Section of the lung that lies on the diaphragm
- Outer double-layered serous membrane
- Impression on the left lung to accommodate the heart
View the histology slides Figure 36.6 (b)and Figure 36.7 (a)and (b) in your Laboratory Manual and identify the microscopic structures indicated by a leader line, number, or bracket. In the threaded Discussion Area below, briefly describe the function of:
- Figure 36.6 (b) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
- Figure 36.6 (b) goblet cell
- Figure 36.6 (b) hyaline cartilage
- Figure 36.7 (a) lumen of bronchiole
- Figure 36.7 (b) alveolar duct
As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format. Support your work, using your course lectures and textbook readings. Helpful APA guides and resources are available in the South University Online Library. Below are guides that are located in the library and can be accessed and downloaded via the South University Online Citation Resources: APA Style page. The American Psychological Association website also provides detailed guidance on formatting, citations, and references at APA Style.