GCU Discuss the severity of the violent crime and how it differs from property crime

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From the list, choose one Part 1 Offense and one Part 2 Offense. Make sure one is a property crime and one is a violent crime.

Look up the statutes for those two crimes in Arizona and, in 500-750 words, discuss the following:

1. Discuss the severity of the violent crime and how it differs from property crime.

2. Discuss how punishment and sentencing standards for the two crimes are different. Are the differences justified? Explain.

Use two to three scholarly resources to support your explanations.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Typing Template for APA Papers: A Sample of Proper Formatting for APA Style

Student A. Sample

College Name, Grand Canyon University

Course Number: Course Title

Instructor’s Name

Running head: ASSIGNMENT TITLE HERE

Assignment Due Date

Typing Template for APA Papers: A Sample of Proper Formatting for APA Style

This is an electronic template for papers written according to the style of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020) as outlined in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The purpose of the template is to help students set the margins and spacing. Margins are set at 1 inch for top, bottom, left, and right. The text is left-justified only; that means the left margin is straight, but the right margin is ragged. Each paragraph is indented 0.5 inch. It is best to use the tab key to indent, or set a first-line indent in the paragraph settings. The line spacing is double throughout the paper, even on the reference page. One space is used after punctuation at the end of sentences. The font style used in this template is Times New Roman and the font size is 12 point. This font and size is required for GCU papers.

The Section Heading

The heading above would be used if you want to have your paper divided into sections based on content. This is a Level 1 heading, and it is centered and bolded, and the initial word and each word of four or more letters is capitalized. The heading should be a short descriptor of the section. Note that not all papers will have headings or subheadings in them. Papers for beginning undergraduate courses (100 or 200 level) will generally not need headings beyond Level 1. The paper title serves as the heading for the first paragraph of the paper, so “Introduction” is not used as a heading.

Subsection Heading

The subheading above would be used if there are several sections within the topic labeled in a first level heading. This is a Level 2 heading, and it is flush left and bolded, and the initial word and each word of four or more letters is capitalized.

Subsection Heading

APA dictates that you should avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within a section. In other words, use at least two subheadings under a main heading, or do not use any at all. Headings are used in order, so a paper must use Level 1 before using Level 2. Do not adjust spacing to change where on the page a heading falls, even if it would be the last line on a page.

The Title Page

When you are ready to write, and after having read these instructions completely, you can delete these directions and start typing. The formatting should stay the same. You will also need to change the items on the title page. Fill in your own title, name, course, college, instructor, and date. List the college to which the course belongs, such as College of Theology, College of Business, or College of Humanities and Social Sciences. GCU uses three letters and numbers with a hyphen for course numbers, such as CWV-101 or UNV-104. The date should be written as Month Day, Year. Spell out the month name.

Formatting References and Citations

APA Style includes rules for citing resources. The Publication Manual (APA, 2020) also discusses the desired tone of writing, grammar, punctuation, formatting for numbers, and a variety of other important topics. Although APA Style rules are used in this template, the purpose of the template is only to demonstrate spacing and the general parts of the paper. GCU has prepared an APA Style Guide available in the Student Success Center and on the GCU Library’s Citing Sources in APA guide (https://libguides.gcu.edu/APA) for help in correctly formatting according to APA Style.

The reference list should appear at the end of a paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. A sample reference page is included below. This page includes examples of how to format different reference types. The first reference is to a webpage without a clear date, which is common with organizational websites (American Nurses Association, n.d.). Next is the Publication Manual referred to throughout this template (APA, 2020). Notice that the manual reference includes the DOI number, even though this is a print book, as the DOI was listed on book, and does not include a publisher name since the publisher is also the author. A journal article reference will also often include a DOI, and as this article has four authors, only the first would appear in the in-text citation (Copeland et al., 2013). Government publications like the Treatment Improvement Protocol series documents from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2014) are another common source found online. A book without a DOI is the last example (Holland & Forrest, 2017).

References

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Scope of practice. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/scope-of-practice/

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2014). Improving cultural competence (HHS Publication No. 14-4849). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK248428/

Copeland, T., Henderson, B., Mayer, B., & Nicholson, S. (2013). Three different paths for tabletop gaming in school libraries. Library Trends, 61(4), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.1353/lib.2013.0018

Holland, R. A., & Forrest, B. K. (2017). Good arguments: Making your case in writing and public speaking. Baker Academic.

Using the six articles from the Topic 2 assignment, identify the research instruments that were used to gather data.

Create a report of 1,250-1,500 words depicting data collection methods. Include the following:

  • Delineate the data collection instruments that were used in the six research articles.
  • From the “gaps” that you discovered in the research from Topic 2, create one research question.
  • Describe which research methodology should be used to better understand the issue you have chosen to study (the research question).
  • Determine what data collection techniques you should use to collect data to better understand your issue.

Be sure to cite three to five relevant scholarly sources in support of your content.

Attached is the paper and six articles to use for this assignment.

Property crimes refer to a category of crimes that involve private property. Property crimes entail crimes like theft, burglary, motor vehicle theft, shoplifting, arson, and vandalism. Crimes against property may involve threats or force, especially if they are related to a robbery. The property crimes include; stolen property and destroyed property. Numerous studies have been done concerning property crimes. The paper reviews some of the available scholarly work related to the topic of study.

1st article summary

The first article is titled Reassessing the Structural Covariates of Violent and Property Crimes in the USA and written by Kposowa, Breault, and Harrison. The article re-evaluates how some variables like economic inequality, social integration, and economic deprivation influence property and violent crimes. Based on the article, the variables influence the rate of increase in property crimes in the United States. Lack of social integration in society leads to increased property and violent crimes (Kposowa, Breault & Harrison, n.d). The absence of social integration in the society discourages peaceful interactions, thus impacting society members’ relationships. Based on the article, economic inequality contributes to property crimes when people feel that life has not accorded the justice they deserve and therefore turn against their neighbors. Economic inequality exposes urban people to unemployment, leading to poverty (Kposowa, Breault & Harrison, n.d). The article pinpoints that economic deprivation exposes people to depression, anxiety, and stress, making them covet what does not belong to them. The methodology used in understanding the problem included a sampling of participants from the urban environment to assess how the covariates mentioned above influence property and violence crimes. However, the samples produced conflicting results and were marred with serious theoretical and methodological problems. The implications of these findings are that; to reduce property crimes, there is a need to initiate quality policies that encourage economic equality, thus empowering all people economically.

2nd article summary

The second article is titled The Impact of Inflation on Property Crime and written by Nunley et al. The article explicates the impacts of inflation on property crimes. The article examines the link between macroeconomic conditions and aggregate crime rates. Different types of property crimes like; burglary, robbery, and motor vehicle thefts and narrow and broad definitions of inflation are used separately to match theoretical predictions (Nunley et al., 2016). Based on the article, the abnormal rise in prices of commodities exposes people to suffering. Inflation on some properties leads increases the chances of theft. The article points out that inflation has led to changes in crime rates in the four categories, namely, vehicle theft, burglary, larceny, and robbery. According to the authors, theoretically, inflation affects the rates of property crimes either through an income effect since inflation can lower the real income of thieves or raise theft per unit reward. The methodology/approach used in understanding the problem is secondary U.S data for the period between 1950 and 2010 (Nunley et al., 2016). The data was analyzed to help give deductions on how inflation can impact property crimes, hence finding a solution for minimizing the crimes. The study’s implications are that; the governments and relevant authorities should ensure factor the effects of inflation while initiating policies of tackling property crimes. This is because inflation plays a role in the increase in the rates of property crimes.

 

 

 

 

3rd article summary

The article is written by Tonkin et al. and titled: Linking Property Crime Using Offender Crime Scene Behavior: A Comparison of Methods. The article examines the linkage of property crimes using offender crime scene behavior by comparing the ability of seven models of statistics to distinguish between unlinked and linked crimes. Based on the article, the behavioral crime linkage tries to address serial offending by connecting crimes grounded on sharing the same offender crime scene behaviors. Behavioral crime linkage (BCL) is used by law enforcement agencies across the globe and can produce a lot of benefits (Tonkin et al., 2019). Based on the article, the benefits of behavioral crime linkage include; providing police with quality and quantity evidence for prosecuting offenders and helping the police work in a more efficient and streamlined way (Tonkin et al., 2019). Therefore, the article investigated the most accurate and reliable method of utilizing offender crime scene behavior for identification of linked crime series. Based on the article, the regression model was successful in the three data sets, while the other models achieved the highest AUC in different data sets. The article pinpoints that the models tested can be used by police to rank the order crime pairs that are similar in behavior and hence provide the necessary evidence focusing on the property crimes that are most likely to be linked. The methodology used in the research included the data from various property crime categories such as residential burglary, car theft, and commercial robbery (Tonkin et al., 2019). The data was essential in exploring the study topic. The study implies that necessary mechanisms should be initiated to ensure that police have the right methods of investigating property crimes, which is essential in knowing how to prosecute criminals based on the crime scene behavior.

4th article summary

The fourth article it titled Evaluations of Security Measures and Impact of Globalization on Characteristics of Particular Property Crimes and written by Ivančiks, Trofimovs, and Teivāns-Treinovskis, evaluates security measures and globalization impacts of the characteristics of certain property crimes. Based on the article, the criminal offenses against property are known to put in danger an individual’s properties and legal entities and also jeopardize their property interests. The article pinpoints the state guarantees the property rights jeopardized by crimes and ensured by the authorities of law enforcement. Crimes such as fraud, extortion, and robbery are committed out of greed to deal with a property as if they owned (Ivančiks, Trofimovs & Teivāns-Treinovskis, 2019). Based on the article, the offenses are more affected by globalization. The globalization processes are believed to have an effect on both the social-economic processes of the country, the criminal punishment policies, the cross- border aspect, and applicable law-making in a particular nation (Ivančiks, Trofimovs & Teivāns-Treinovskis, 2019). The methodology that was used in the article included the review of secondary sources from various countries to help in making judgments on the topic. The study implies that globalization affects the security measures initiated by different countries to tackle property crimes. This may lead to an increase in the rates of property crimes across the border; hence necessary policies should be enacted to deal with the issue.

5th article summary

Another article, titled Investigating the Influences of Tree Coverage and Road Density on Property Crime and written by Ye, Chen, and Li, explores the influences of road density and tree coverage on property crimes. Based on the article, understanding the relationship between a crime and its environment helps in revealing strategies for reducing crimes in the neighborhood. The convenience of road network influences property crimes; areas that are easily accessible have high rates of property crimes compared to complex road networks (Ye, Chen & Li, 2018). According to the article, the vegetation cover leads to a decrease in property crime rates. Based on the study findings, allocating police force to neighborhoods with low road intensity and tree coverage forms an effective way of saving police resources while also maintaining the city’s safety. The approach or methodology that was used in understanding the problem is the case analysis of the city of Vancouver in British Columbia, where it utilizes the road network data and tree coverage in making judgments concerning the topic (Ye, Chen & Li, 2018). The implication of the study is that adequate policies should be initiated to ensure that the distribution of police for the security of property is made considering the effects of the tree coverage and road networks towards influencing the crimes.

6th article summary

The sixth article is titled Organizational Activities and Property-Crime Victimization and written by Corcoran, Scheitle, and Hudnall. The article explores the relationship between organizational activities and property crime victimization. Based on the article, routine activities increase the likelihood of an individual being victimized by property crimes by mixing with offenders (Corcoran, Scheitle & Hudnall, 2020). According to the article, organizations own some properties. The properties are likely to be vandalized or stolen. Based on the article, people are likely to be victimized by organizations when the properties are stolen. The study uses the routine activities theory to explore the topic. Also, the research uses secondary data from a survey that was fielded by the state university of Pennsylvania survey research center in 2015 to explore the research questions, which is essential in making judgments concerning the issues. The implication of the study is that quality measures should be put in place to ensure that the investigation of property crimes in an organization is done appropriately to avoid scenarios where people are victimized.

Comparative analysis of the articles

The approach used in the first article, which is written by Kposowa, Breault, and Harrison, is the experimental method. A sampling of the population was conducted to obtain first-hand information for the research. The advantages of the approach include; accurate and reliable data and also offers a deeper insight into the topic of discussion. Its disadvantage is that it is time-consuming. In the second article by Nunley, the study used a content analysis approach where secondary data available in the U.S database for a certain period was used in making judgments. The advantages of this approach are that it provides reliable data, and it is fast. The negativity of this approach is the data can be manipulated, thus affecting its reliability. In the third article by Tonkin et al., the approach used is experimental, where the data from various property categories were analyzed against a certain model to help in making judgments. The advantages of the approach used include; it is fast and offers reliable data. Its disadvantage is that it is complicated.   The article by Ivančiks, Trofimovs, and Teivāns-Treinovskis used a content analysis method where several secondary sources from different countries were analyzed to make judgments on the topic. This approach is; that is time-consuming, most applicable for exploring a large area. Its disadvantage is that the data can be manipulated, thus affecting the accuracy of the results. The article by Ye, Chen, and Li utilizes a case analysis approach. The advantages of the approach are; it is time-consuming and provides detailed information. Its disadvantages are that; it is time-consuming and difficult to replicate. Moreover, the last article by Corcoran, Scheitle, and Hudnall used secondary data from the state university of Pennsylvania. The advantages of this approach are that it saves time and cost-effective. The disadvantages include; it may not answer a specific research question, and it can provide inaccurate data.

In the first article, I would use the survey method as an appropriate approach for examining the topic. This is because the survey approach will provide accurate data that is compatible with the research question hence avoiding methodological and theoretical problems. In the second article, I would make use of the content analysis method because it fits most in the research topic considering the area under study. Also, in the third article, I would use a similar experimental method because it is the most suitable for the exploration of the phenomenon in question. In the fourth article, I would utilize the content analysis method since it offers a wide variety of investigations for a broad research question like the one under investigation. In the fifth article, the case analysis approach, as used in the study, is most applicable because it offers the best way of answering the research question. In the sixth article, I would use the survey method approach to obtain first-hand information from the employees. The survey method will offer a first-hand experience, which will be essential in making the right judgments, especially on such a sensitive topic.

 

Crime is everywhere, as we begin to realize each and everyday crime begins to become normalized. Each and every day the news about crime is shared, as normal as the morning weather. Whether it is something as small as vandalism or an individual driving recklessly ending the life of another. With the connection between property crime and violent crime being made for the reason of gains. Property crime, categorized as a crime, which includes, amongst others burglary, theft, shoplifting, arson, and vandalism. Violent crimes are crimes committed against others, such as homicide, sexual assault, kidnapping, robbery and the list continues. Throughout the following essay we will deliberate two particular offenses, a property crime: vandalism and…show more content…
In 2012 to 2013, there has been a decrease within violent offenses in Arizona. According to FBI Uniform Crime Reporting, since 2010, Arizona violent crime rates have remained greater than the country’s violent crime rate. Violent crimes as measured by four violent index offenses, being murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. In the case of violent crimes, we will go into detail on Aggravated Assault. Aggravated assault has been described as the effort to cause severe physical injury to another. A.R.S. § 13-1204, also defines that the offender commits the assault intentionally, commits crime knowingly, purposely and intentionally. According to Block (1981), violent crime could be comprehended as social behavior, which consist of two individuals and their interaction. In the following case of aggravated assault, it would individual whom attacked an individual, which results in purposely inflicting bodily injury. Unlike, violent crimes, property crime are one of the most common types of criminal offense and are offenses taken out against the property. Property crimes range from burglary, theft, shoplifting, arson, and vandalism. In this particular time, we will be discussing the property crime, vandalism. According to Yavuz, & Kuloğlu (2010), vandalism is the act of social, mental, spatial and economical aspects, which have negative effects on the

JUS 481 Grand Canyon University Data Collection of Property Crimes Paper

https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/tables/table-2

 

View Table 2.1 in your textbook.

From the list, choose one Part 1 Offense and one Part 2 Offense. Make sure one is a property crime and one is a violent crime.

Look up the statutes for those two crimes in your state and, in 1000 words, discuss the following:

1. Discuss the severity of the violent crime and how it differs from property crime.

2. Discuss how punishment and sentencing standards for the two crimes are different. Are the differences justified? Explain.

Use four scholarly resources to support your explanations.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Reading Material for the week

1. Read Chapter 3 and review Chapter 4 of Introduction to Criminology: Why Do They Do It?

URL:

https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/sage/2020/introduction-to-criminology_why-do-they-do-it_3e.php

2. Watch “Shell Shocked: Growing Up in the Murder Capital of the U.S.A.” [Video file] In Films on Demand (2013).

URL:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=12129&xtid=56474

3. Review “Public Order Offenses” from Bureau of Justice Statistics website.

URL:

http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=34

4. Explore “Uniform Crime Reports” from the FBI: Violent Crime website.

URL:

https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/violent-crime/violent-crime

5. Explore “Violent Crime” from the Bureau of Justice Statistics website.

URL:

https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=31

6. Read “Property Crime” from the FBI website.

URL:

https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/property-crime

7. Review “Property Crime” from Bureau of Justice Statistics.

URL:

http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=32

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