Choose the answer that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which statement about the deist philosophy is TRUE?
a. It did not accept a belief in God.
b. It stressed that people can earn salvation through good works.
c. It believed that God took little interest in human affairs.
d. It believed that God decided people’s fates before birth.
2. The Second Great Awakening was a reaction to
a. new technologies such as interchangeable parts.
b. deism, universalism, and unitarianism.
c. Calvinist doctrines and teachings.
d. the American System programs.
3. How did Jefferson and Gallatin deal with the national debt?
a. They increased excise taxes and tariff taxes.
b. They demanded greater cooperation from the states.
c. They decreased the functions of the national government.
d. They reallocated funds that had supported European embassies.
4. Which of the following factors contributed to Thomas Jefferson’s decision to make the Louisiana Purchase?
a. Spain closed the port of New Orleans to American commerce.
b. Great Britain invaded Cuba.
c. The citizens of New Orleans petitioned Jefferson to make the purchase.
d. Napoleon sent troops to the Dominican Republic.
5. As president, how did Jefferson respond to tensions with the Barbary states?
a. He built up American naval forces in the area.
b. He formed an alliance with Spain.
c. He opened trade relations with China.
d. He signed Macon’s Bill Number 2.
6. The Supreme Court chief justice during the case of Marbury v. Madison was
a. James Madison.
b. William Marbury.
c. John Marshall.
d. Albert Gallatin.
7. In the Supreme Court ruling in Fletcher v. Peck,
a. the court supported the arguments of the state.
b. the court upheld the sanctity of contracts.
c. the court rescinded legislative fraud-impaired contracts.
d. the court could not rule on the constitutionality of state laws.
8. Aaron Burr was charged with treason
a. for trying to separate the West from the rest of the United States.
b. for falsely claiming to be an ambassador while in France.
c. for siding with the Federalists in 1808.
d. for joining the Freemasons and actively supporting the Anti-Mason Party.
9. As the Napoleonic Wars raged in Europe, Thomas Jefferson tried to keep the United States at peace
a. with Macon’s Bill Number 2.
b. with Macon’s Bill Number 1.
c. with the Embargo.
d. by making an alliance with the Barbary states.
10. The significance of the Battle of Tippecanoe was that
a. it demoralized the Tecumseh Confederacy.
b. it won support from the French for the United States.
c. it encouraged Britain to support Native Americans against settlers.
d. it expelled the Spanish from the Great Lakes region.
11. In effect, the Embargo Act
a. had strong public support in the Northeast.
b. caused England to agree to respect American rights.
c. caused severe depression in France.
d. caused economic mayhem in the United States.
12. After the election of 1808, Thomas Jefferson
a. launched an attack on the Barbary states.
b. retreated from his embargo policies.
c. became a Federalist.
d. sided with Britain against Napoleon.
13. Which of the following changes in the Constitution was recommended by New Englanders at the Hartford Convention?
a. congressional representation for slaves
b. constitutional amendments to protect New England’s interests
c. increased power of the president to declare and wage war
d. easing of restrictions for the entry of new states
14. Which of the following is TRUE about the Battle of New Orleans?
a. British forces retreated when they saw how strong American defenses were.
b. British forces won and forced the surrender of the city.
c. British forces were annihilated by Andrew Jackson and his troops.
d. Andrew Jackson was briefly held as prisoner.
15. The Treaty of Ghent
a. awarded part of Canada to the United States.
b. did little more than end hostilities and postpone issues for future negotiations.
c. gave the British navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
d. was negotiated quickly and quietly since there were no real issues to debate.
16. Which of the following best explains the outcome of the Adams-Onís Treaty?
a. It excluded Spain from the North American continent.
b. It reduced British influence in Florida.
c. It granted the Northwest Territory to the United States.
d. It made Florida a United States territory.
17. The prominent New York merchant who established a fur trading business in the Pacific Northwest was
a. Kit Carson.
b. John Jacob Astor.
c. James Bridger.
d. George Vanderbilt.
18. Which of the following was NOT part of the transportation revolution of the early 1800s?
a. a national road system
b. canal systems
19. How did the war of 1812 affect American industry?
a. It caused demand for American goods to fall.
b. It created a market for munitions in Europe.
c. It created a demand for American manufacturing.
d. It had little effect on the United States, which was agricultural.
20. The turnpike era began with the construction of a toll road from
a. New York to Newark.
b. Philadelphia to Lancaster.
c. Richmond to Savannah.
d. Boston to New York.
21. Who founded the first American mill that combined spinning and weaving under one roof?
a. Francis Cabot Lowell
b. Samuel Slater
c. John Jacob Astor
d. Zebulon Pike
22. Which of the following was NOT a factor in making the South the world’s greatest producer of cotton?
a. demand created by the growing textile industry
b. the availability of good land in the Southwest
c. the existence of slavery in the South
d. the discovery of new, more productive species of cotton
23. The demand for money and credit following the War of 1812 led to
a. more state banks.
b. tighter money policies.
c. farm subsidies.
d. the charter of new federal mints.
24. After 1815, the Republican Party
a. maintained its philosophy of states’ rights and limited government.
b. sought to renounce Federalist accomplishments.
c. adopted the programs of the Federalist Party.
d. promoted the continued existence of a two-party system.
25. A major advocate of the American System was
a. Andrew Jackson.
b. Henry Clay.
c. John Tyler.
d. Thomas Jefferson.
26. Which of the following did the American System NOT include?
a. support for higher tariffs
b. reestablishment of the national bank
c. federal support for internal improvements
d. a limited role for the federal government
27. The panic of 1819
a. had little effect on post-war prosperity.
b. was precipitated by the changes in policies of the Bank of the United States.
c. led to a strong economic program by James Monroe.
d. stemmed from the public’s natural distrust of lawyers.
28. The question of admitting Missouri to the Union in 1819
a. involved primarily economic issues.
b. had relatively little significance for the future of national expansion.
c. allowed for exploration of the Louisiana Purchase territory.
d. stirred fears regarding the balance of power between North and South.
29. The decision that strengthened the validity of a contract or charter by guaranteeing that business enterprises incorporated by state governments could hold on indefinitely to any privileges or favors granted in their original charters was
a. Marbury v. Madison.
b. McCulloch v. Maryland.
c. Fletcher v. Peck.
d. Dartmouth College v. Woodward.
30. The Gibbons v. Ogden decision of 1824 increased the power to regulate interstate commerce for which government entity?
a. Executive Branch
c. Supreme Court
d. Judicial Branch
31. The main diplomatic challenge facing President James Monroe in 1820 was
a. the continuing threat of English intervention in the United States.
b. the development of trading rights with Latin America.
c. establishing friendly relations with France.
d. responding to the revolt of Spain’s Latin American colonies.
32. The foreign policy initiative calling for an end to all European colonization efforts in the Western Hemisphere was known as the
a. Monroe Doctrine.
b. Adams-Onís Agreement.
c. Continental Treaty of 1818.
d. Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
33. What did the European observer Alexis de Tocqueville believe was the most radical feature of democracy in America?
a. the equality of former slaves
b. the decline of traditional aristocracy
c. the participation of women in government
d. the American election process
34. Which of the following was an indicator of American democracy during the 1820s?
a. changes in the distribution of wealth
b. changes in the distribution of property
c. the way in which presidential electors were chosen
d. free African Americans voting
35. Which of the following fostered a two-party system on the national level in the 1820s?
a. changes in the Constitution regarding the party system
b. an increasing concern about foreign policy issues
c. charges of a corrupt bargain
d. married women gaining the right to vote
36. The Marshall Court decisions regarding Indian tribes
a. maintained a system of equality in the United States.
b. forced removal of Indian tribes from of their land.
c. increased the power of state governments over tribal lands.
d. defined a place for Indian tribes within the American political system.
37. In the election of 1824, Andrew Jackson
a. was initially viewed as the strongest candidate.
b. won a majority of electoral votes.
c. could claim fame as a military hero.
d. found great support in the North.
38. In 1829, the social scandal in Washington, D.C. that resulted in the reorganization of Andrew Jackson’s cabinet involved
a. Letitia Christian Tyler.
b. Julia Gardiner Tyler.
c. Peggy O’Neale.
d. Abigail Adams.
39. What was Andrew Jackson’s attitude toward Native Americans?
a. They should be removed to areas beyond white expansion.
b. They should be allowed to remain on their tribal lands.
c. They should be assimilated into white society.
d. They should be exterminated.
40. The tariff issues of 1828 and 1832 are best described by which statement?
a. A complicated Jacksonian plot was revealed to discredit the Adams administration over the passage of the tariffs.
b. Since the tariffs were perceived to be judicious and compromising, they were supported by all groups except southern planters.
c. The tariffs revealed the growing world desire for protectionism.
d. The tariffs were a convenient issue used to expose the bigger issue of nullification, or the right of an individual state to set aside federal law.
41. Which of the following cases denied states the right to take Native American tribal lands?
a. McCulloch v. Maryland
b. Wallace v. Tennessee
c. Worcester v. Georgia
d. Fletcher v. Peck
42. During the nullification controversy, political and personal problems became highly visible between Andrew Jackson and
a. John C. Calhoun.
b. John Quincy Adams.
c. Edmund Randolph.
d. Henry Clay.
43. A major criticism of the national bank was that it
a. concentrated too much power in the hands of the privileged.
b. failed completely to meet its financial responsibilities.
c. was a tool of the Democratic party.
d. was mismanaged by Nicholas Biddle.
44. What was significant about Andrew Jackson’s effort to destroy the national bank?
a. Jackson supported nullification.
b. Jackson believed a state could not tax the national bank.
c. Jackson viewed the bank as a personal enemy.
d. Jackson raised the issue of a line-item veto.
45. Belief in the national bank, high tariffs, and federally financed internal improvements best describes the policies of which party during the 1830s?
46. How did the Whigs use popular appeal in the 1840 presidential election?
a. creating sympathy for Nicholas Biddle
b. adopting the policies of Martin Van Buren
c. speaking out against the Anti-Mason Party and its supporters
d. portraying William Henry Harrison as a rugged frontiersman
47. Why did Henry Clay and Daniel Webster persuade Nicholas Biddle to apply for a recharter of the national bank in 1832?
a. to provoke a negative response from Andrew Jackson and discredit him
b. hopes that the bank would be renewed
c. loss of interest in the bank, which would renew automatically in four years
d. to embarrass Nicholas Biddle, whom they did not trust
48. The United States opened trade relations with China in the administration of
a. John Tyler.
b. Andrew Jackson.
c. Martin Van Buren.
d. James Monroe.
49. The Whigs’ “Great Triumvirate” included
a. John Tyler, Nicholas Biddle, and Roger Taney.
b. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun.
c. Caleb Cushing, John Tyler, and Daniel Webster.
d. Martin Van Buren, John Marshall, and Nicholas Biddle.
50. In which case did the Supreme Court uphold the concept of implied powers by saying a state cannot tax a federal institution?
a. Marbury v. Madison
b. Cohens v. Virginia
c. Johnson v. McIntosh
d. McCulloch v. Maryland