Choose one of the following questions and write a 5 page essay: (double spaced)
1.Humans have developed systems of governance to create order. Examine the development of governmental systems from the earliest river-valley civilizations through the middle ages. What brought about the emergence of early political systems? What are the salient features of complex civilization? What factors might explain the growth of empires in the ancient and medieval periods, and account for their decline?
2. Civilization and social inequality seem to go hand in hand. How have human societies attempted to develop ethical systems and thus regulate the abuses of power and violence, and ensure social harmony? In what ways have these attempts sown divisions among human beings. In your essay, please examine the formation of ethical systems between 500 and 700 BCE, the impact of universal religions between 100BCE and 600 CE, and the role of religion in the expansion of the Islamic Caliphate, European Christendom and the Mongol Empire.
3. We can learn a great deal about human culture when we explore our interaction with food. Examine the relationship between the cultivation of food, the development of complex civilization, the growth of trade and commercial networks between 3000 BCE and 1500 CE. Your essay should reflect finally on the implications of agricultural in the clash between the old world and the new around 1500.