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2 Keeping the Project on course

Pamela Hines

Strayer University

Keeping the Project on Course

Lorna Thomas

11/12/2021

No professor notes

Discuss or critique whether the project was planned correctly.

The Trophy Project was essentially botched from the onset. Hence, the project was not planned appropriately. There are several reasons why the project was over budget and did not meet the allocated timelines goals. I believe that the issues began in the planning stage. They should have set daily, weekly, monthly, meetings to keep everyone apprised of the progress or lack thereof of the project. Regular communication to inform management of conflicts, issues, and concerns would have been helpful for the key stakeholders. By doing this, the project could not have gone behind schedule without management being fully aware. This would allow them to examine what was going and what needed to change from the beginning. With the proper administration of this concept, customer expectations would be more defined and scope creep would not have been allowed to take place.

The next issue was staffing. To have resources working on a myriad of duties outside of the project, yet be paid from the project budget was mismanagement, to say the least. If by chance it was a mandate to use the aforementioned resources on more than this assignment, their time should have been prorated. They would thus, only be paid for the time devoted to the project. Their other hours would be paid from another budget accordingly. Additionally, the project needed to hire or delegate specific team members only for the project to increase the possibility of meeting the deadlines.

Lastly, the executive team should have given control of the project to an effective project manager. Hence, this strategy would have allowed the project manager to lead the project. The project manager would therefore be the primary source of information and communication. They would be responsible for directing personnel and resources. The team would then know to whom to follow and get directions. This would alleviate mixed messages and allow for a more concise communication plan.

Discuss whether management was committed to the project. 

Senior management was not supportive or fully engaged in the project. They did not supply what was needed most for the project manager and his team to succeed. That would have been clear and realistic expectations and fully vesting from the executive team. There were complications identified initially with the resources. However, the replacements were an even bigger detriment. Training them and getting them on top of things took the precious time they did not have built into the timeline goals. Apprising the senior management of problems at an early stage should have resulted in collaboration and assistance that would have served the interests of the project manager, team, and customer. Instead, the senior management team issued intimidations and unapproachable management methods.

Discuss whether or not fostering more cooperation was within the scope of the project.

Absolutely better cooperation was within the scope of the project. In a project, it is necessary to have lucid cooperation within the team, back and forth between the project manager and the team, and among the executives and the project manager. There seemed to be a matrix organizational structure in place. However, I believe communication channels would have been strengthened if they adopted a more cooperative approach. It was important that each key stakeholder be involved with the project’s evolution. Having a positive cooperative relationship from the top down would encourage everyone to be open and honest and seek resolutions rather than excuses and blaming.

Is it possible or even desirable, when doing strategic planning for project management, to include ways to improve cooperation and working relationships? Or is this beyond the scope of strategic planning for project management?

I have worked as a project manager on a few projects. They all met the predefined budget and timeline goals. Primarily my success was due to a well-thought-out strategic plan. It is very possible and should be desired to include cooperation and working relationships. To begin, there should be some time set aside to get to know one another. I would suggest a luncheon where all the key stakeholders could introduce themselves, explain their level of involvement, and give a brief description of how the positive project outcome would affect them or their work-life. At that meeting, they could exchange information, set up a project charter, and establish the reporting methods and timelines to be used. The is a necessary step in strategic planning. In my opinion, it should be included in the inception of every project.

Examine actions that could have been taken to get the project back on track.

To get the project back on track, I would have begun by establishing a project charter. I would also have recommended that they followed a project organizational structure and that the project manager be given the autonomy to make decisions. This organizational structuring method uses a combination of functional and project management to execute a variety of tasks, objectives, and projects (Kloppenborg, Anantatmula, & Wells, 2019). Additionally, the project leader would have needed to encourage the understanding that the team members would be dedicated for explicitly the Trophy Project. This would have also eliminated the conflict of resources being stretched across several projects. It would have also inspired a team culture with the project manager as the spearhead. One leader would afford the opportunity to identify issues and resolve them proactively more quickly.

Finally, I would have begun with an efficacious plan of quality management: quality planning, control, and improvement. I would have had weekly status assessment meetings beginning at the inception of the project. The primary goal of the sessions would have been to ensure that hindrances be addressed as rapidly as they arise rather than when they become festered out of control. We would have also examined the budget and made tweaks as required. I would have also advocated the use of a project charter, Gantt charts, or supplementary tools to track the consistent progress of the project. Most pertinently, I would have worked closely with the management team and continually discussed how their support and involvement were mandates to assure a better project execution. Once the project was complete, I would have met with the executive team again to review the results both positive and negative. Lastly, I would have created a list of best practices for the next project.

Reference:

Kloppenborg, T., Anantatmula, V., & Wells, K. (2019). Contemporary Project Management (4th ed.).  Retrieved from: Strayer University Bookshelf: Contemporary Project Management (vitalsource.com)

The Final assignment is twofold.

First, create a balanced scorecard for the financial, customer, business, and learning aspects of a project using the following scenario: You are a project manager for a large electronics retailer (for example, Best Buy) who will be implementing a new time-keeping system to track hourly and salaried employees’ time and attendance. You have been asked to develop a balanced scorecard that can be used to manage the effectiveness of this project.

1. Include at least one reference.

Second, prepare a 20–25 slide PowerPoint presentation in which you:

1. Create an executive summary summarizing and emphasizing the key points of the report’s contents, which are the topics from previous papers in the course. They are:

Organizing HR Projects


Schedule and Budgeting Exercise for Project Scenario




Leading and Managing the HR Project

Planning Considerations for the HR Project



Keeping the Project on Course

2. Address the following bulleted topics from your previously revised papers in the notes area with summary bullets for that content placed on the corresponding slides. Note: Make sure you incorporate any feedback received on your previous work, as applicable. Feedback is on the cover page of each assignment. I have included each assignment for your perusal.

· Provide a statement of overall importance and include the vision and mission statement. Describe how the vision and mission statement relates to the overall strategy.

· Create a project charter and emphasize the importance of the information in the charter to the project.

· Discuss a minimum of four outcomes that could occur during this project.

· Identify and discuss the challenges a project manager may face when leading virtual or global project teams. Recommend a few strategies to deal with the challenges.

· Outline the overall plan for communication management during the project.

· Explain how the budget was determined.

· Insert the WBS and budget file, created in Week 4, into the presentation and summarize the meaning of the findings.

. Use the following resource as needed: 
Insert a Chart From an Excel Spreadsheet Into Word
.

· Discuss the behavioral skills needed for project success.

· Identify and explain the possible risks to your project and ways to mitigate those risks.

Prepare and include an original conclusion section that focuses on key recommendations.

· Do not use any previous conclusion sections from past papers in the course.

· The conclusion section must take all previous papers into account.

***Please pay attention to the rubric and make sure that as you work on your assignment, you are checking to see if you are fully answering each section

· Although this is a PowerPoint presentation, each section requires a heading.

Create the reference page or pages by copying and pasting all references from the previous four assignments and any new references as a result of this report. Remember, the reference slide should be separate from the other content. I have compiled all of the references from previous papers and included them with these criteria.

Rubric

Create a balanced scorecard for the financial, customer, business, and learning aspects of a project using the following scenario

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 9.75 (32.50%) points

Satisfactory 11.25 (37.50%) points

Competent 12.75 (42.50%) points

Exemplary 15 (50.00%) points

References–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 5.85 (19.50%) points

Satisfactory 6.75 (22.50%) points

Competent 7.65 (25.50%) points

Exemplary 9 (30.00%) points

Grammar and Mechanics–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 3.9 (13.00%) points

Satisfactory 4.5 (15.00%) points

Competent 5.1 (17.00%) points

Exemplary 6 (20.00%) points

Rubric

Create a 20–​​​​​​​25 slide presentation overview (executive summary) summarizing and emphasizing the key points of the report’s contents, which are the topics from previous papers in the course.–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 22.5 (15.00%) points

Competent 25.5 (17.00%) points

Exemplary 30 (20.00%) points

Address the bulleted topics from your previously revised papers in the notes area with summary bullets for that content placed on the corresponding slides.–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 22.5 (15.00%) points

Competent 25.5 (17.00%) points

Exemplary 30 (20.00%) points

Prepare and include an original conclusion section that focuses on key recommendations.–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 28.125 (18.75%) points

Competent 31.875 (21.25%) points

Exemplary 37.5 (25.00%) points

Create the reference page or pages by copying and pasting all references from the previous four assignments and any new references as a result of this report.–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 22.5 (15.00%) points

Competent 25.5 (17.00%) points

Exemplary 30 (20.00%) points

Clarity and writing mechanics.–

Levels of Achievement:

Unacceptable 0 (0.00%) points

Needs Improvement 16.875 (11.25%) points

Competent 19.125 (12.75%) points

Exemplary 22.5 (15.00%) points

 

Unacceptable

Needs Improvement

Competent

Exemplary

Define and discuss scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and provide a statement of importance to your project team so they know the relevance of each task.

Points:

(0.00%)

Did not submit or incompletely defined and discussed scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and incompletely provided a statement of importance to your project team so they know the relevance of each task.

Points:

16.8 (12.00%)

Partially defined and discussed scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and partially provided a statement of importance to your project team so they know the relevance of each task.

Points:

19.04 (13.60%)

Satisfactorily defined and discussed scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and satisfactorily provided a statement of importance to your project team so they know the relevance of each task.

Points:

22.4 (16.00%)

Thoroughly defined and discussed scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and thoroughly provided a statement of importance to your project team so they know the relevance of each task.

Select four behavioral skills, associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and explain your rationale.

Points:

(0.00%)

Did not select four behavioral skills, associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and did not explain your rationale.

Points:

16.8 (12.00%)

Selected four behavioral skills, associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and partially explain your rationale.

Feedback:

Choosing the right people was a key one, communication, conflict management etc. those would be great examples to explore as a PM

Points:

19.04 (13.60%)

Selected four behavioral skills, associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and satisfactorily explain your rationale.

Points:

22.4 (16.00%)

Selected four behavioral skills, associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and thoroughly explain your rationale.

Explain to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs and how costs are aggregated and explain determining cash flow for separate activities.

Points:

(0.00%)

Did not submit or incompletely explained to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs and how costs are aggregated and did not explain determining cash flow for separate activities.

Points:

16.8 (12.00%)

Partially explained to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs and how costs are aggregated and partially explained determining cash flow for separate activities.

Points:

19.04 (13.60%)

Satisfactorily explained to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs and how costs are aggregated and satisfactorily explained determining cash flow for separate activities.

Points:

22.4 (16.00%)

Thoroughly explained to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs and how costs are aggregated and thoroughly explained determining cash flow for separate activities.

Discuss at least three ways the project manager is able to identify possible project risks.

Points:

(0.00%)

Did not submit or incompletely discussed at least three ways the project manager is able to identify possible project risks.

Points:

16.8 (12.00%)

Partially discussed at least three ways the project manager is able to identify possible project risks.

Points:

19.04 (13.60%)

Satisfactorily discussed at least three ways the project manager is able to identify possible project risks.

Points:

22.4 (16.00%)

Thoroughly discussed at least three ways the project manager is able to identify possible project risks.

Create a budget for the project using the WBS file previously created. Insert the WBS form into the body of the paper.

Points:

(0.00%)

Did not submit or incompletely created a budget for the project using the WBS file created in the Week 4 Formative Activity. WBS was not inserted into the paper or was incomplete.

Points:

16.8 (12.00%)

Partially created a budget for the project using the WBS file created in the Week 4 Formative Activity. WBS was not inserted into the paper or was incomplete.

Feedback:

Remember your WBS is a list of tasks and the cost associated with those creates the budget. Go back and review the feedback provided in the previous assignment…

Points:

19.04 (13.60%)

Satisfactorily created a budget for the project using the WBS file created in the Week 4 Formative Activity. Inserted the WBS form into the body of the paper.

Points:

22.4 (16.00%)

Thoroughly created a budget for the project using the WBS file created in the Week 4 Formative Activity. Inserted the WBS form into the body of the paper.

Four references.

Points:

(0.00%)

No references provided.

Points:

10.5 (7.50%)

Does not meet the required number of references; some or all references are poor-quality choices.

Points:

11.9 (8.50%)

Meets the required number of references; all references are high-quality choices.

Points:

14 (10.00%)

Exceeds the required number of references; all references are high-quality choices.

Clarity and writing mechanics.

Points:

(0.00%)

More than six errors present.

Points:

10.5 (7.50%)

5–6 errors present.

Points:

11.9 (8.50%)

3–4 errors present.

Points:

14 (10.00%)

0–2 errors present.

Professor Notes – Planning Considerations for the HR Project

Exit

Leading and Managing the HR Project

Pamela Hines

Strayer University

Professor Lona Thomas

10/29/2021

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2

Good information as you described and explained how you would use the communication plan. I would like to see your explanation objective and clear as you seemed to personify the communication plan by telling me what it will do and not what the purpose would do.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Management

Types of Project Management

Project management entails the methodologies, skills, knowledge, and experience used to achieve organizational goals in a manner that is effective and efficient. In project management, there are ways through which a project manager can effectively manage the project team. The project manager can employ the Scrum procedure where the team can respond swiftly, successfully, and resourcefully to change (San Cristóbal et al., 2018). This methodology will focus on delivering results through advancement in communication, unity, and speed of development. Decisions are made as a team, and consistent and valuable feedback is sent to relevant parties in the process. This method is applicable in this instance as the server system updates will require random checks to ensure that the server is up to date.

Scrum methodology counts on bringing slices of a project at various interludes during the progression, compared to waiting and allotting one concluding result at the end. Scrum methodology is also applicable as the project’s scope is well defined in its adaptability and short phases. Moreover, some code implementations may bring in additional aspects that are not presently there. The project manager will need to have an agile mindset and be organized to deliver results in bits as the project unfolds (Piraveenan, 2019). An agile leader is a flexible leader who can adapt to change, have open communication with all parties, and efficaciously work on projects in phases.

The lean and sigma methodology can also be applied in project management as it entails quality control and eradicating waste. Lean concentrates on plummeting waste in the business process, thus reducing cost, lead-time, and quality advancement. Six Sigma methodology emphasizes eliminating flaws and waste and developing a solidified understanding of client expectations throughout the project. Six sigma also intensifies the project’s financial performance and reduces costs associated with project completion, focusing on process improvement. Additionally, this method is applicable in the setting as the project manager wants to ensure that the objective is the same (Rolstadås & Johansen, 2021).

Outcomes in Project Management

One in every six projects will expend more than 200% of the projected amount. 70% of IT developments face project interruptions. In managing a project, various outcomes are expected (Bogdanova, Parashkevova & Stoyanova, 2020). Organizations may end up losing much money as a result of these outcomes. It is important that the project manager be flexible enough to know that possible issues might occur and develop a plan for them to be solved if they arise. These constraints will be based on time, scope, and budget. Scope creep is one of the project outcomes where the requirements of a project tend to advance over the project’s lifecycle. It takes place when the executives change their provision or internal divergences and miscommunication (Otra-Aho, Iden & Hallikas, 2019). The project may anticipate one deliverable at first, but while it advances, the deliverables become ten. Hence, it results in project delays and roadblocks.

In some instances, scope creep is advantageous. Agile managers expect scope creep in the process, and they are flexible enough to manage deliverables. The client’s needs may advance as time progresses. Bringing a project that responds to their requests implies that their scope is being transformed. Engaging the clients during the planning process will aid in acquiring the required expectations and deliverables (Silvius & Schipper, 2020). Moreover, resource and talent planning are also helpful in managing deliverables. It is also needful not to undertake impromptu requests during the execution of the project as it can result in delays and additional costs.

Lack of strong goals and standards is another issue in project management. Lucidity is one of the utmost vital necessities for the achievement of a project, and the absence of it fashions numerous problems in the direction of projects. Many tasks become unsuccessful due to poor planning and unclear goals. A project manager needs to discover enumerating project development by setting up signs and quality examinations. As the manager aids in the team’s progression, ensuring that there are set objectives will aid in defending the vision of the executive management and other stakeholders. This can be eradicated by setting Specific Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Timely (SMART) approaches that will aid in setting practical goals for the project. It will also help in overcoming the barriers to project management (Silvius & Schipper, 2020). Once the purposes of the project have been created, they need to be communicated to other team members to ensure that all have understood them.

One of the most significant issues in project management is budgeting. Around 50% of industrial managers’ account costs are the most critical test they face. The contract expenditure may be over-run, which may result from an agreement between a supplier, which is on a time and material basis, and the bills are accumulating. Budgeting issues may also arise when managing risks are costing more, the management reserves are inaccessible, or the expenditures cannot be tracked. It is imperative to implement suitable budgeting measures and make authentic molds to avoid assails. Development of the scope of the project must be carried out while bearing in mind the budget constrictions (Otra-Aho, Iden & Hallikas, 2019). Budget limitations could impend the project results. Documentation of all actions must be done promptly and accurately.

In scenarios that are worn, poor risk management will result in project failure. It implies that the time, effort, and costs invested in the project are wasted, and project objectives have not been met. Poor risk management can impact the success of the project severely. Having the prudence to classify potential situations and formulating exigency plans is a significant feature of project management (Otra-Aho, Iden & Hallikas, 2019). Projects infrequently go accurately as prearranged as there are abundant elements that generate limitless options. Every project manager must introduce alternative plans that can be adopted by the project team if the project goes awry. A risk management system in the project is needed in recognizing the classes of dangers and justifying them. Exigency plans are also required in the project. The project team should classify all possible threats to ensure that corrective action may be taken if they actualize.

Accountability is a primary requirement of the project team to justify its’ activities, admit responsibilities and unveil results transparently. A project team executes effectively when all members feel responsible and succeed in fulfilling their assigned roles. Lack of commitment on the part of the project team can descend an entire project. Culpability ensures that the project manager’s efforts are put on prospects, signs, and presentations, which are drivers of accomplishment. When the manager is answerable for their activities, the project is possible to be brought rendering to the prospects of the administrative personnel (Bogdanova, Parashkevova & Stoyanova, 2020). There are ways and means by which accountability can be evaluated in the organization. It entails stressing the interrelation of activities, follow-up activities, challenging poor presentation, and intensifying performance matters. Effective project managers allocate assignments to team members and through the team and guide the team in the direction of the mutual aim of positively implementing their project. Partaking in consistent check-ins in the squad also encourages responsibility (Otra-Aho, Iden & Hallikas, 2019).

Another issue that arises in project management is the incomplete assignation of investors. An uninvolved stakeholder can result in matters in the concluding phases of the project, so it’s essential to reflect the customer’s response and keep them updated in the course of the scheme (Silvius & Schipper, 2020). A project management team should invite the customer and other investors to the management system to vigorously contribute to determining the project and offering a response. Moreover, safeguarding that all stakeholders, interior and exterior, are in the circle right from the start of the project. It is also essential to agenda consistent conferences with all shareholders and discourses their anxieties as compulsory.

Having an intolerable limit is an extra issue that arises in project management that can affect project effectiveness. An operative project manager will distinguish the competence of the project team and transfer the development timeline by ranking limits and project times. The issue of many administrators is to find alternative methods to accomplish duties and schedule to comprehensive a scheme on period or get endorsement for sliding dates. In instances of unrealistic deadlines, time constraints are not in alignment with the cost and scope (Bogdanova, Parashkevova & Stoyanova, 2020). The project manager must upsurge resources for the project by identifying that adding properties to the plan will make the price grow and possibly prohibit the project deadline to be achieved.

Challenges faced by a project manager and their solutions

A chain is as robust as its weakest link. The overall success of the project is contingent on the individual skills of the project team. When a project is successful, the team members are successful as they play essential roles in ensuring that the project outcomes have been actualized. Even if a project manager can generate a perfect atmosphere, if the squad does not hold the required aids to attack the deliverables, the project is guaranteed to be unsuccessful. A successful project manager will invest their time in selecting an appropriate team that is unbiased. Insufficient skills by the team are a management issue that can be cracked using proper knowledge and forethought (Myrberg, 2020). Operative project directors pre-regulate the necessary skills in project management and capabilities while weighing the existing personnel to regulate whether additional staff and skillset are necessary.

Communication always has been one of the most significant challenges in project actualization. Communication is one of the critical aspects of project management, and there is a direct relationship between project success and communication. An appropriate and crystal-clear communication methodology ensures that all shareholders are involved in the procedure. There are instances where not all members know the progress of the project. A global team is enormous and communicating with them becomes a challenge (Myrberg, 2020). Effective communication methods must be put in place to ensure that all members are aware of the project, and in case any issue arises, it is communicated with transparency.

Another challenge is the actualization of deadlines. Poor project management consists of the lack of adhering to its’ client given timelines. In the past, I worked for a company that was planning to move its main office to a different state. The project manager did not ask for input from the executive team. She was unaware of preventive measures that could be put into place to allow the project to move more quickly and smoothly. Because of her lack of communication with us, she was not able to meet the deadlines. This in turn changed the six-month project into a yearlong one. I recommend that communication be vast with the key stakeholders. Additionally, setting up email, Zoom, or text messages to keep everyone informed and to encourage input would prove valuable in meeting the project’s timeline goals.

Communication Plan

A communication management plan will establish the procedures, kinds, and prospects of communications. It offers the stakeholders communication supplies to interconnect the suitable info as needed by the shareholders. It entails what is to be linked (Myrberg, 2020). A communication plan identifies how essential information will be passed to stakeholders throughout the project. It also determines the intended recipient of the communication, how they will receive it and how often they should expect to receive that information.

To illustrate the purpose of communication management, I will use a sample project. It entails updating a server system update at XYZ limited. Specifically, it involves wireframing, coding, and copywriting. These steps are unfamiliar to some stakeholders and as a project manager, each of the steps needs to be understood by all. Moreover, the project manager needs to ensure that the goal of the communication plan is known. It also dictates the stakeholders and their roles. The communication plan will also indicate the kind of information that will be shared with the stakeholders. The methodology used to communicate is also another aspect of the communication plan (Myrberg, 2020). Communication will take place regularly to ensure that all persons receive information on time. This communication plan will create written documentation to which the team can refer. It sets an expectation of when stakeholders will receive updates. A communication plan offers the opportunity for stakeholders to give feedback which aids them in detecting issues early and reducing wastage of resources. It also increases productivity during meetings or eliminates them.

Lastly, the communication plan encompasses meeting deadlines. It is important that the project observes agreed-upon timelines and sets up an effective plan to assure that they are met. Managing the project effectively will focus on keeping key stakeholders in the loop on time constraints and project progression. Charting progress so that all involved can see when goals are attained or if adjustments need to be made to adhere to the project’s timely completion.

References

San Cristóbal, J. R., Carral, L., Diaz, E., Fraguela, J. A., & Iglesias, G. (2018). Complexity and project management: A general overview. Complexity2018.

Rolstadås, A., & Johansen, A. (2021). The dawn of a new era for project management.

Piraveenan, M. (2019). Applications of game theory in project management: a structured review and analysis. Mathematics7(9), 858.

Bogdanova, M., Parashkevova, E., & Stoyanova, M. (2020). Agile project management in governmental organizations–methodological issues. International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences6(16), 262-275.

Silvius, G., & Schipper, R. (2020). Exploring variety in factors that stimulate project managers to address sustainability issues. International Journal of Project Management38(6), 353-367.

Otra-Aho, V. J., Iden, J., & Hallikas, J. (2019). The impact of the project management office roles on organizational value contribution. International Journal of Information Technology Project Management (IJITPM)10(4), 79-99.

Myrberg, M. E. (2020). The communication process between a project owner and a project manager: a multiple case study of three projects in the construction industry (Master’s thesis, Handelshøyskolen BI).

Schedule and Budgeting Exercise for Project Scenario

Pamela Hines

Strayer University

Professor Lorna Thomas

10/27/2021

CENTRALIZED STRUCTURE 2

CENTRALIZED STRUCTURE 2

Notes from Professor: I would have loved to have seen more information on the actual tasks.

CENTRALIZED STRUCTURE

Centralized Management

Centralized management is an organized structure where a few personnel make significant decisions in an organization; a few leaders cause decision-making power. The top management makes the decisions that are communicated to their subordinates for execution. Centralization refers to the progression by which operations entailing planning and making decisions in an entity are concentrated to specific personnel in a company. If an organization moves to a centralized organizational structure, they will have to show a chain of command in the overall management structure and reduce decision-making strategies to subordinates (Afsharian, Ahn & Harms, 2021). The top-level management will oversee making policies and decisions for the organization. Directors and experts will make significant decisions and will be based in the headquarters of the organization.

Tasks in a centralized organization system

The Chief Executive Officer, vice-president, president, and the board of directors form a component of the top-level management team. They are responsible for governing and administrating the organization as a whole. Moving an organizational structure to a centralized system involves employees make top-level decisions. These decisions affect the nature of the organization in the long term. Some of the tasks they will deal with include the development of the overall goals and strategic plans (Afsharian, Ahn & Harms, 2021). The activities entail many risks. They include technological decisions, capacity decisions, facilities decisions, and vertical integration. These activities are critical to the performance of any organization.

Budgeting

Budgeting is a severe constraint in project management and needs much decision-making. Various techniques for formulating a budget include cost aggregation, expert judgment, cost aggregation, historical relationships, and reconciliation of the funding limit. When making a budget, one needs to assess the financial capabilities followed by an examination of the expenses to see whether there is a need for making adjustments (Spoială, 2018). The goals and objectives are set, and a plan is created. In this stage, the project manager will discover the number of resources required for the project.

Work Breakdown Structure

Project Lead: Installing a Server System Update in XYZ Ltd.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BUDGET

ACTUAL

Under(Over)

 

Start Date: 01/12/2021

Total

$ 40,480.00

$ 43,550.00

$ -3,070.00

 

 

 

Labor

Materials

Fixed

 

WBS

Task

Hrs

Rate

Units

$/Unit

Costs

 

Budget

Actual

Under(Over)

1

Project Initiation

0

$ –

0

$ –

$ 1,200.00

$ 1,200.00

$ 1,200.00

$ 1,100.00

$ 100.00

1.1

Project Evaluation

$ 800.00

$ 800.00

$ 800.00

$ 900.00

$ -100.00

1.2

Project certification

 

 

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 200.00

$ 200.00

2

Project Planning

0

$ –

0

$ –

$ 1,600.00

$ 1,600.00

$ 1,600.00

$ 1,850.00

$ -250.00

2.1

Developing Scope statement

 

 

 

 

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 500.00

$ -100.00

2.2

Assembling project Team

 

 

 

 

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 200.00

$ 200.00

2.3

Plan Scheduling

 

 

 

 

$ 450.00

$ 450.00

$ 450.00

$ 800.00

$ -350.00

2.4

Project Budgeting

 

 

 

 

$ 350.00

$ 350.00

$ 350.00

$ 350.00

$ –

3

Project Execution

304

$127.00

15

$630.00

$12,000.00

$28,430.00

$28,430.00

$28,000.00

$ 430.00

3.1

Lay Foundation

60

$ 7.00

0

$ –

$ 800.00

$ 1,220.00

$ 1,220.00

$ 1,500.00

$ -280.00

3.2

Purchase of Computer hardware and software

80

$ 10.00

15

$ 630.00

$ 3,000.00

$13,250.00

$13,250.00

$ 15,000.00

$ -1,750.00

3.3

Install an Operating System

42

$ 50.00

 

$ –

$ 5,000.00

$ 7,100.00

$ 7,100.00

$ 6,000.00

$ 1,100.00

3.4

Update Server systems

112

$ 30.00

0

$ –

$ 1,200.00

$ 4,560.00

$ 4,560.00

$ 4,000.00

$ 560.00

3.5

Install updates and restore access.

10

$ 30.00

 

 

$ 2,000.00

$ 2,300.00

$ 2,300.00

$ 1,500.00

$ 800.00

4

Project Control

60

75

0

$ –

$ 4,500.00

$ 6,000.00

$ 6,000.00

$ 9,500.00

$ -3,500.00

4.1

Resource Management

20

$ 25.00

 

 

$ 1,500.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 2,500.00

$ -500.00

4.2

Computerized management.

20

$ 25.00

 

 

$ 1,500.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 3,000.00

$ -1,000.00

4.3

Risk management

20

$ 25.00

 

 

$ 1,500.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 2,000.00

$ 4,000.00

$ -2,000.00

5

Project Close-out

45

$ 50.00

0

$ –

$ 1,900.00

$ 3,250.00

$ 3,250.00

$ 3,100.00

$ 150.00

5.1

Audit Assessment

30

$ 40.00

 

 

$ 1,000.00

$ 2,200.00

$ 2,200.00

$ 2,200.00

$ –

5.2

Cleanup of unwanted equipment

15

$ 10.00

 

 

$ 500.00

$ 650.00

$ 650.00

$ 700.00

$ -50.00

5.3

Handing over the documentation

 

 

 

 

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 400.00

$ 200.00

$ 200.00

References

Afsharian, M., Ahn, H., & Harms, S. G. (2021). A Review of Approaches Applying a Common Set of Weights: The Perspective of Centralized Management. European Journal of Operational Research.

Spoială, A. (2018). Concept delimitations of budget as efficient tool in the management structure of the enterpretise. In Universitas Europaea: spre o societate a cunoașterii prin europenizare și globalizare (pp. 68-71).

STRATEGIC PLANNING 7

Strategic Planning

Pamela Hines

Strayer University

Organizing HR Project

Lorna Thomas

10/22/2021

Provide a statement of emphasis to your project team based on the information you provided in the previous three sections of the paper requirements. Your statement should encompass the key parts of the paper… and use that information to show why these are important to your project.

Strategic Planning

Review and define the five steps of strategic planning depicted in Exhibit 2-1 below. Based on the information, provide a statement of the overall importance of these steps to your project team.

Strategic planning is a vivacious process in any given organization. Its’ purpose is to develop plans that offer direction for a given period. The essence of strategic planning is to ensure that management achieves a specific set of objectives and goals aimed at either short-term or long-term purposes. The strategic planning process is broader in an organization that assists in the roadmap for all the objectives and goals that management needs to attain logically. Strategic planning consists of five steps in which management should adhere and implement rationally. The first step is the strategic analysis which in most cases consists of researching the nature of the company (Dennis, 2019). Consequently, the strategic analysis further analyzes the operating environment of the business to be able to formulate a strategy that helps to formulate the goals and objectives of the company. The strategic analysis makes it possible for management to better evaluate both the internal and external environment to make better decisions for the future.

The guiding principle is the second step that the executive members of the organization use to establish the vision and mission of the organization about the goals and objectives. The guiding principle gives an overview of the role of each member which ensures that the organization meets the set goals and objectives. The mission statement is the most vital component of the guiding principles as it provides the reason the organization is undertaking certain businesses, the objectives, and the unique approach that the staff members will implement to attain the goals in the future (Rasouli et al. 2020). The elements of the vision and mission statement in the organization might in some cases become mixed and embedded to safeguard that the organization has better-set goals, values, and purpose. The vision of the organization refers to the actual position in which the organization needs to get. Many organizations only focus on implementing the short-term goals and objectives forgetting the need to enact the long-term goals. Consequently, the vision of the organization guides the decision-making process as it is essential in enforcing the actions that might either build or destroy the future of the organization.

The strategic objective is the next process which entails the purpose statement that the senior level management must develop to guide the staff members in attaining the overall vision of the organization. Although the vision statement of the organization offers the short-term and long-term objectives that ought to be accomplished, management needs guidance and measurement for each step conducted by management. The strategic objectives provide the necessary tools to measure each of the steps either through the use of observable data or statistical results (Rasouli et al. 2020). Through the strategic objective, it is possible for the executive to establish a connection between the vision and the actual action plans to attain the goals.

The next step of the strategic objective consists of the flow-down objective which refers to the executive management’s way of sharing clear project definition to the rest of the employees in the organization. The executive and the top management have the uttermost responsibility of enacting objectives and goals that the organization ought to achieve within a set timeframe. However, after writing down the goals and objectives, the rest of the organization must become aware of the goals and direction in which the organization needs to undertake in both the short-term and long-term periods. The flow-down objective serves the purpose of clarifying the details in simple terms for easy interpretation by the rest of the employees.

The portfolio alignment is the final procedure in strategic planning which deals with the aligning of all the existing projects in the entire organization. The top-level management has to first initiate the selection of the most crucial projects in all the departments and provide instruction for the prioritization of the projects by the other employees. Subsequently, the organization should identify the entire projects in the organization and formulate a balance between the short-term and long-term projects (Dennis, 2019). While the management might need to implement short-term goals for the survival of the firm, it also has to consider the long-term objectives that will make it possible for the organization to survive in the future. Portfolio alignment assists in giving better directions on how the organization needs to execute objectives and maintain a balance at the same time.

Develop a vision and mission statement for the project team specific to the current project. 

The vision statement involves one single statement that provides a general summary of the plan that the organization intends to achieve in the future. The foremost essence of the vision in the organization is to provide better direction and guidance to the executive team as well as the staff members in the organization about accomplishing assigned tasks.

The vision for the organization would entail, “To empower people and change the world by making them realize their full potential.”

The mission statement provides the public with the main purpose of the company and in most cases, organizations utilize it for branding as it captures the attention of the public. The company mission statement will also capture the core values of the organization and make them known to the public. The mission statement for the company would entail, “Make employees in the organization perform better through training and education to ensure that the organizations around the world successfully build and sell products and services.

Explain to the project team what a project charter is and why it is used.

The majority of modern organizations have a strategic plan in place to ensure that all the projects contribute to attaining the goals and objectives of the firm. The top-level management team must ensure that employees provide high performance in their assigned tasks and duties to make the organization successful in the future. The level of commitment and dedication of each employee in the organization assures that customers receive better products and services in the marketplaces. The senior management in the organization will utilize the project charter, which is a document developed to assist in directing the managers and employees on the start and finish date of the projects (Bryson, Edwards & Van Slyke, 2017). Consequently, the project charter is a mandate in that it formally introduces the project to the rest of the staff members and acts as a reference source for managers to use in the future in accomplishing the project.

Review Exhibit 3.3 below and select any three charter elements you feel are more important and explain why.

The project charter consists of different elements that will provide detail on the current projects being undertaken in the organization. The organization ought to ensure that each project consists of a charter that gives information on the project such as the beginning of the project, the managers in charge of the project, resources needed, and the projected date that the project might end (Rasouli et al. 2020). Although the project charter consists of different elements as illustrated on the chart, it is important to give emphasis to the most significant elements on the table. The three most significant elements of the project charter consist of the background, success criteria, and resources.

The background provides the basis and the reason for the existence of the project in the organization. The background details of any given project give an explanation to the managers and the rest of the members of the organization why the project existed. The executive management might decide to initiate different projects depending on the benefit that the project will have to the entire organization (Bryson, Edwards & Van Slyke, 2017). Through the project charter under the background element, the senior management will provide details on the reasons that attributed to the initiating of the project.

The second most essential element on the project charter table consists of the success criteria which is pertinent in the evaluation and measuring of the success rate of each project. The essence of the senior management in the organization is not only to provide decision-making policies but also to evaluate the running projects and ensure that the projects meet the standards and fulfill the purpose as documented. The success rate of the project consists of measuring the level of resources used in the project and the outcome. The success criteria determine whether the executive will approve the management to continue with the project or terminate it depending on the number of resources utilized. The final and most essential element on the project charter table consists of the resources. The resources consist of the readily available materials, workforce and capital that the organization is willing to fund the project. George, Walker & Monster (2019) explained that the organization might have an amazing blueprint and idea about the proposed project but without having the resources in place, it is not possible for the management to approve the start date actualizing the project. The resources in the organization will ensure that each project does not stop along the way but is efficacious until the completion date.

Provide a statement of emphasis to your project team based on the information you provided in the previous three sections of the paper requirements.

The Human Resource Management department is one of the most critical components of any organization. It is responsible for recruiting, training and ensuring employees accomplish their assigned duties. I have found that the Human Resource Department is the nucleus of my company. It drives our company’s success by hiring employees with the right fit and coaching them to attain goals through regular reviews and assessments. Modern organizations need to have well-trained employees that have knowledge of the vision and mission to become successful (Ugboro, Obeng & Spann, 2018). Hence, I recommend that senior-level management have a project charter in place to support the planning, tracking, and attaining a high level of success for each project in the corporation.

References

Bryson, J., Edwards, L., & Van Slyke, D. (2017). Getting strategic about strategic planning
research. Public Management Review, 20(3), 317-339.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2017.1285111

Dennis, C. (2019). Strategic planning—a health system operational perspective. Journal of
Hospital Management and Health Policy
, 3, 32-32.
https://doi.org/10.21037/jhmhp.2019.10.03

George, B., Walker, R., & Monster, J. (2019). Does Strategic Planning Improve Organizational
Performance? A Meta‐Analysis. Public Administration Review, 79(6), 810-819.
https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13104

Rasouli A, Ketabchi Khoonsari MH, Ashja’ ardalan S, Saraee F, Ahmadi FZ. (2020). The
Importance of Strategic Planning and Management in Health: A Systematic Review. J
Health Man & Info
; 7(1): 1-9.

Ugboro, I. O., Obeng, K., & Spann, O. (2018). Strategic Planning As an Effective Tool of
Strategic Management in Public Sector Organizations: Evidence from Public Transit
Organizations. Administration & Society, 43(1), 87–
123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399710386315

2 Planning Considerations for the HR Project

Planning Considerations for the HR Project

Pamela Hines

Strayer University

Managing Human Resource Projects HRM 517

Professor Lorna Thomas

Due 11/22/2021

Please see the attached Rubric for professor notes entitled Planning Considerations

1. Define and discuss scope and scheduling as they each relate to project management, and provide a statement of importance to your project team, so they know the relevance of each task.


Project Scope

Being an effective and successful project manager requires a thorough understanding of what is necessary to achieve project objectives and a detailed mapping of the path that will take you to those objectives. It my responsibility as the project manager to ensure that all projects, regardless of their complexity or scale, remain on track throughout their duration. The most straightforward approach to doing this is to define a project’s scope declaration (Fageha & Aibinu, 2014). The first step of the project planning process is the definition of the project scope. Normally, it requires compiling a comprehensive inventory of all the elements used to construct the project’s structure. Deliverables, project goals, features, functionalities, tasks, deadlines, and expenses are all examples of what may be included in this category. The relevance of project scope is determined by a declaration about what the project aim is, what they are expected to create, anticipated restrictions, assumptions, and dependencies, among other considerations. Following project acceptance, my first step in ensuring its success is to prepare for its scope management. The definition of the project scope statement is yet another critical part of scope management (Fageha & Aibinu, 2014). Know the procedures will allow me to start working on creating a paper that will outline the project.

For the project to be completed successfully, the project’s scope must be precisely specified and documented. Scope management helps a project manager to assign the right money and workforce requirements for finishing the project. My primary concern would be with defining what is and is not included in a project’s scope. The following three processes are involved in managing project scope: planning, managing, and concluding the project. The definition of the project scope statement is yet another critical part of scope management. The scope statement is a document that describes the project’s goals, deadline, and relationships that regulate the project’s execution. Features included in this document contribute to creating a successful scope statement, which reduces the likelihood of change orders and disruptions while keeping the project on schedule and under budget. My scope statement will contain the following elements:

· A business case

· A project scope statement

· Performance objectives

· Hypotheses about the project

For a variety of reasons, the project scope statement is critical to this project’s success. Controlling the expectations of stakeholders and customers is the most difficult challenge with which project managers must deal. A well-defined scope makes it straightforward for everyone to stay on the same page throughout the project’s lifespan. A well-drafted and clearly defined scope may aid our business in avoiding frequent challenges like needs that change regularly (Fageha & Aibinu, 2014). Some of the challenges of this project may be some team members might mandate a rethink in the middle of a project, another is customer disappointment because the final results not be what they expected. Others include budget overruns, project delays, or delays in the completion of the project (Cho & Gibson, 2001). Efficient scope management may help avoid these issues by clearly defining and communicating scope to all parties engaged in the project from the outset (Al-Rubaiei et al., 2021 A project scope helps distinguish between what is and is not included in a project and control what is permitted and what is deleted as the project is executed (Cho & Gibson, 2017). Elements that might result in changes during the project’s lifespan can be addressed with the aid of scope management, which helps build control elements that can be used throughout the project’s lifecycle.


Project Scheduling

Project managers must meticulously plan and schedule their projects to complete them in a timely manner, with high quality, and in a fiscally appropriate manner Project scheduling outlines a project’s activities, deliverables, and milestones at the beginning of the project (Duggan, 2019). Schedules also contain the anticipated start and end dates and the resources and time allotted to each activity in the schedule. Successful project scheduling is a critical component of efficient time management and the achievement of project objectives. An effective project manager must define realistic or practical time boundaries for projects, allocate resources appropriately, and oversee quality to reduce product flaws and mistakes (Al-Rubaiei et al., 2021). As a result, expenditures are often reduced, while customer satisfaction is usually raised. Documentation, finance, managerial, and quality assurance are all important considerations in the process. Project scheduling is critical since it ensures that activities are completed in a high-quality manner before moving on to the next job (Duggan, 2019). As the project manager, I will ensure that team members deal with problems as they arise rather than waiting until the end. Quality measurements meet expectations at each step of the project’s life cycle. Project managers will use project scheduling meetings to check in with their team members and prevent costly misunderstandings that may have occurred otherwise (Duggan, 2019). Periodic meetings like this ensure that processes are maintained from process to process, and that every team member realizes that they must contribute to the successful completion of the project to be successful.

Select four behavioral skills associated with project resourcing, that you consider to be critical and explain your rationale

It is vital to have technical skills/specialization of resources related to the project since most projects include one or more technologies, which are referred to as the process or technology area that is at the very heart of the project. The key is to select resources who have the technical skills already. The ability to coordinate and oversee the implementation of these technologies is critical to success This project will probably be related to a few technological domains in some capacity (Kloppenborg et al., 2018). Even though the emphasis may be different, the process stages and skills required to manage a successful application will be the same.

The next would be the rate of resource learning. Being able to catch on quickly and retain the learned information is imperative to successful project. Taking additional time to train resources could increase the budget and alter the time scheduling deadlines. I worked on a project that a particular resource was trained three different times. This caused our deadline to be moved back two additional weeks. Hence, it is urgent that the resource be a quick and efficient study.

Another behavioral skill would be availability of resources. Not only must the resource be mentally available, but they also must be present physically for the project to be successful. Having dedicated team members will help the project progress smoothly. Assuring the resource is prepared for the many twists and turns expected within the project will be essential. Having a resource that is willing to think outside of the box and who believes in the particle component of the job description which states and other duties as required, is essential.

Also, the team must behave properly. This team must be focused on two universal goals: ensuring customer satisfaction and delivering on schedule. The utilization of teams is forthright. High-performance teams provide excellent customer service while saving money. Unfortunately, there is a negative side to this; underperforming teams will undoubtedly cost money and cause the customer to be dissatisfied. When a project team’s behavior is aligned with the tasks, the time it takes to achieve project effectiveness and productivity is drastically reduced, with overall quality and productivity improved while company costs are reduced. When behavioral hindrance is discovered and removed, decision-making, problem-solving, communication activities, and brainstorming become more present, acceptable, and long-term processes. It is one of the most difficult tasks we must do to create a realistic project timeline. Several common scheduling issues may be avoided, allowing the whole team to have more trust in the timetable as a result.

Lastly, the assessment of the time of any project is the most often encountered difficulty in scheduling (Kloppenborg et al., 2018). There must be a sense of confidence in the duration of time estimates. Many times, there is an underestimation of how long tasks will take, resulting in scheduling that is not the best-case scenario. It would help if additional time was allocated to each of the duties to avoid this. It is critical to understand the timetables and be able to trust that the given timeframes for goal attainment are adequate.

Explain to the management team and your project team how you have determined the budget associated with project costs

The project budget will be set by examining the different phases of the project in their various cycles and calculating the resources that will be required. It will be easier to monitor expenditures in this plan, which will ensure that every activity, including software, hardware, and materials necessary for the project, is properly accounted for, and documented. Consequently, cost predictions will be required, which will outline all the expenses incurred to complete the project successfully. The expenses of a project will be divided into two basic categories, which include both direct and indirect project expenditures. These costs will be used to pay for materials, labor, services, equipment, hardware, software, and facilities, including contingency and other expenses. Because of the project’s desire to increase its human resource services operations, its current management will predict cash flow by employing investment activities as a basis for planning (Rawi, 2016). The cash flow will be determined as the difference between the cash inflow and outflow from sales and purchases, as shown in the diagram below. Additionally, cash flow will be determined based on the cash outflow and inflow because of the acquisition of fixed assets and other factors.

Discuss at least three ways the project manager can identify possible project risks

As a competent project manager, I must be able to recognize hazards and then manage those risks effectively. The following are the four methods a project manager may use to identify project risks: brainstorming, cause and effect diagrams, assumption analysis, and use of a scope document (Ajmal et al., 2019). All projects are subject to risks, and if a possible risk is not discovered early on, the project will be at high risk of failing to finish on time, within budget, and with the required level of quality and performance (Soroka-Potrzebna, An acknowledged challenge encountered by a rookie project manager is the lack of a general risk list or sample to consult when assessing the project’s potential pitfalls. Because I will begin my planning process with a thorough evaluation of the scope statement, it is possible to identify project perils via the scope document. The process of risk identification should begin at this phase since the major emphasis is on identifying the responsibilities of various stakeholders in the organization (Rawi, 2016). When analyzing scope papers and other fundamental materials, it is critical to search for poorly stated needs, time commitments, or unachievable budget commitments.

The brainstorming method encourages people who gather in person to offer their ideas and opinions on a certain topic (Soroka-Potrzebna, 2018). In addition, teams can communicate through Zoom, texts, or emails. During brainstorming meetings, all contributions will be welcomed without any evaluation. The evaluation of thoughts and ideas occurs after the conference’s conclusion when such ideas are discussed and assessed (Ajmal et al., 2019). The objective will be to have a variety of participants. That will impact the type of opinions and ideas. As result, some consideration will need to be made as to who will be participating in the process overall.

Possible project jeopardies can be detected by another method of using diagrams. I could use diagrams depicting the causes and effects of events. I have found that having visual aids assists the team with staying on target on a project. This unpretentious approach identifies the reasons or facts that contribute to project threats. By addressing the underlying reasons, the project risks that have been recognized may be reduced or eliminated.

A final means to identify possible concerns within the project is using the Assumption Analysis. It is a kind of hypothesis testing. According to the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge), an assumption is a factor that is taken as actual, true, or certain despite the absence of indication or proof. When one makes assumptions, they expose themselves to danger. A project manager is responsible for inquiring stakeholders about any assumptions about the project at hand (Rawi, 2016). Additionally, project managers are responsible for recording such assumptions and the risks associated with them.

Create a budget for the project using the WBS file created in the Week 4 Formative Activity

To summarize, project planning demands the use of a diverse variety of tools, all of which are critical to the successful completion of a given project. The success of this project will depend upon time, reduction in duplicate stages and activities, expenses, and effective execution of the project plan. Consequently, as the project manager I need to implement the scope and schedule of the project under consideration. Scope offers the project’s needs, whereas scheduling comprises the timing of step-by-step objectives created for the project deliverables. The effectiveness in such processes will make it easier for me to accurately define the statement of significance to the project team and permit the members to complete the project’s purpose under discussion. In addition, predicting expenses and planning by utilizing project tools will provide proper budgeting to perform the project. Finally, to accurately decrease costs, I will identify the significant threats by using techniques like brainstorming, assumption analysis, and cause and effect diagrams. I will address known vulnerabilities via these methods as soon as feasible to ensure the effectual implementation of the project within the stipulated time.

References

Ajmal, M., Khan, M., & Al-Yafei, H. (2019). Exploring factors behind project scope creep – stakeholders’ perspective. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 13(3), 483–504. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijmpb-10-2018-0228

Al-Rubaiei, Q. H. S., Nifa, F. A. A., & Musa, S. (2021). The Empirical Relationship between the Stakeholder Involvements, Project Manager Skills, Top Management Strategy and Project Scope Management: A Study on Government Projects in the Sultanate of Oman. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(3), 2675–2682. https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i3.1295

Cho, C. S., & Gibson, G. E. (2001). Building Project Scope Definition Using Project Definition Rating Index. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 7(4), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1076-0431(2001)7:4(115)

Duggan, T. (2019, February 5). What Is the Importance of Project Scheduling & Its Role in Business Projects? Your Business. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/importance-project-scheduling-its-role-business-projects-9503.html

Fageha, M. K., & Aibinu, A. A. (2014). Prioritising Project Scope Definition Elements in Public Building Projects. Construction Economics and Building, 14(3), 18–33. https://doi.org/10.5130/ajceb.v14i3.4155

Kloppenborg, T., Anantatmula, V. S., & Wells, K. (2019). Contemporary Project Management (4th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Rawi, R. M. (2016, May 19). Project Risk Identification for New Project Manager. Project Management TImes. https://www.projecttimes.com/articles/project-risk-identification-for-new-project-manager/

Soroka-Potrzebna, H. (2018). Risk identification as a basic stage of the project risk management. European Journal of Service Management, 27, 277–283. https://doi.org/10.18276/ejsm.2018.27/1-35

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