Business management – customer relations executive summary – due fri

Even the smartest students need writing assistance at some point during their academic career. Should you lock yourself in a room and spend the entire weekend trying to write a paper? We promise you that the paper that you pay for won’t be resold or submitted elsewhere. It will also be written according to the instructions that you and your professor provide. Our excellent essays stand out among the rest for a reason. Don’t just take our word, check them out by yourself.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Topic: Executive Summary 

Format/Length: 2 pages | APA Format | MUST REFERENCE 3-4 COURSE RESOURCES 

Due: Friday, November 19, 2021

Info: Please see attached detailed assignment instructions, case study, and course resources attached.

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

1223�4�56789:;<6=89>�?8:@A::8<9: � � �5BCD�EF4�GHFI�J27K26:L8M�N<6�;L2�OI:;�P29;A6Q�ROSTUUV�W�XYZ[]̂_Ỳ[a�b[]cd]][_]D<[email protected] DL627K: e<:;: J7:;�e<:;�fg78h7ih2�<9�[email protected];�Okl�OkOI�IOmkI�fBn�occU]]�YU]̂Y[ĉUpqUr_YU�ZsZ[tZq[t[̂u�]̂ZŶ]vBA:;�M<:;�N86:;nwxyz{x�|}~{}�����{������������������������������w����������������������������������{��������|�������������������������������������������������������|�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �������/��#��
��/���#���¡��*”������*������#�$��/��#���������������$�������¡���¢&�����*�¡�*���/��”��#���$������*���������������������¡��#���
���+�£����������������$������*���������#������”+��#��¤���’���*��¥���#�&�����+�£���%�¢&¦��%������*�������¤���’���*��¥��*�#&���������������/��#����”�§
�������’������������/#��*�#�����#���/��*”�%����#�����**#�**/�’���%��#���*”�0���������¥�����#�’����”%����#����������+�§��/�����������$��̈������”��#��/���/��������**’���̈�’�”������������
��/�#����**��.����#����”��*�����#���$��#�”��#�$�������+�§��%������#�’�/�������**’�#�*$%�*¡��������#�’��©$*����”�������%��#����̈��

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

12345 16789:; <2;=; >9;=�<2;=$��?*������#�’�#�”�/��#������*�/#��*�#����[email protected]“�����#���*�”�����#�����A���”�������%�B&C������*��#����+������#���”�’��/��#����”�@
����$�?’��#��������������������#�����#����/�’���/��
��������#�/��.��’�#������������+
����.����������$�����%��#�����������%��#����$��’����$����#������������C�����”��%����+D�/������#�’�”���#����%��#�’�”����������#��E�F����#��$��?*������#�/�����/���������#���������$$����#�/��#������*�?�*���”�������*��*������/#��”������*�.����G�”���E���/��#���*���
��/���#����#�������������#��”�����*�.��/��#�������������.���+�@��%����#��������*’����”������������*��%�����’����HI������J�������������������*�����%������#����������������������%��#��?�������?�*��.�������#���”����#���������������.�������$�����������”�.�*�$������”�
��$�������������+��#����/��%��������K�”�#�����.����LM��%�N�������������������’��#�’C.������$$�”���$*����”$���#�������������������”������?�”����.�����”� LM��%�?����������?�*��.���#����#�’C��$��.�”����O��$�����O�������������.�������*’ M��%�����������%��*��#������+��#���C��?.����*’���”����������#���+�/��#�����*�K�����#���@�������������������”����/���������%���������������.����#��”���”�”��#���#��/��*”�*�
���������#�/�’��/��*”����
*�������������$*��������*��.����B&C�*����”����������������������#���B&����?�������.�*������#����$��?*���+���/��#���*��/��*”�*�
������������#��A����%����”����%’�����”���*.�����#����$��?*�������/�**+�P������#������*�������#���/��
C���������QHRSTIHU�HVWTSXSHTYZ�YTSHRS�H�TS[TR�YQ[USRS�]IRZ�HVŜSY_RÌS�X_QQHTa��#����””��������#�%�**�/����

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

12345 16789:; <2;=; >9;=�<2;[email protected]@EFGH�IJ�KL�MNOPQR�����$*�����#��%�**�/����S&��������$����*�����T�����.�������’��#�����$�������U��%��”���������/��#���#���’���#�.�”����.���”+�#���”����V&�/����%������������������*������#�$�W�X�/�����V&���
���#��������%����YZ�*����”�����������������WX�/�/�**����”�%%���%������*��.�����������������*����������W�(X����[�����������””�����*���������”���*����)!��
��$���%���**’�����$�����”Z���#�]�����/#���
��”���%�����”���������”��’����#��
��%*������V&̂����*������#�$�/��#�#�������������W�_�����’�/������*��
�[��
�����#�����*������������������#�*$������/�������#���$���+Z�*���������#��̀�����#��������#�[����/�’�����[��*”�*����”������������������*������#�$����”U����%’�’������������%�����*�������#��+a”����%�����#�����$��’���/��*”��
�����#�*$�*����”����������������������*.���#���$��[*���+_��������������������������*�����$$����’�������$��������”b b������T������������/��#����%�������*���+cde�fd�eghfi�jk�ilimnfhoi�pnqqjgLr

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

12345 16789:; <2;=; >9;=�<2;[email protected]�GCHHIJEAG�GKLCMN�EOBMCNA�DKAPLMMLQEOR�BLHSLOAODGTU���V$*���������%�/#’��#���������#/���$��%����”�#������*����#����#���������#�’��*”�” ��$���”�������������%���#�/��������������*��”���#�$��#��*”�W����*���������������W���”�����#��%��”�����%��������#�#�’��#��*”�W������������”�”����*�”������������%��#����X���$���������W���”��W’����”�����#����$���YZ�[]̂ _̀ ̂ _[�[?�a??b�����$*����#��%�**�/����c��$��”����’����*����������#������������”�’��#����#�����#��/��
+c����W���’���������’������”�.�*�$��#��W�������/��������#�d������������$����W*�+�e����*�������������”������#������������”��#��$���������%�**’*��
����%����#��W�����”����W����$�������”+���#�����*�����#���W’�#����”��%��#��/��
��#���*���/�**������������������������������#��W�������/������.����’���#���#����������W�����#��W����”��������#��%���*�$���+e��������������������������*�����$$����’�������$������W��’���”���������”��������U U����#��W�������������”���������/��#��#���V��$������%�f��”�’g�������*�%�������$��������$���+ ������$���������/���#��+��$��������#�/��
�(�hi��%��#��%���*

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

12345 16789:; <2;=; >9;=�<2;=���”�)+� ������$�����������?���%*����”�����#��%���*�$���������”���/�**�?���%%����”�?’��#���������$��������%��#��$�����%$������$��������������#�/�+�#���%�������������$�����������������#���*�����%������”�/��#��#��”����%���$��.����’���������*�$����/��#��#��”�������������#����#��%���*����”��/�**�?���#�?����’�������”�*�.��+�@A�BC�DEFGHICJ����$*�����#��%�**�/����K����#�’����%���*�$��������#��*��������?’�����”�’��������-
�L��#��%���*�$�����������%*�����#�?�����������������.��������”�#��*”�?��”�%%�������#����#�M��”�’�������*�$���+�#��%���*�$������������*�”���.�����’��%���������%�����#���*����������*����/�**�����#�������%��������������������”‘�%����/#�����$$��$�����+N�������OPL�K K������Q�������������”���%�������*���+IRRSTSUVWX�YZ[S]Ẑ ZVT_�WVR�̀Ua�TUb]ZcW]Z�TdZ�eZZfXg�ITTWhd̂ ZVTGî S__SUVM�**�/��#�������������������%�**’��%��#��������������
��%���������������*�$*������$��������+�?����������%�**�/��#�%���������$*�����$��.�”�”+P�?����������#��*”�?����$��$���?��������/�������%���+��

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ,��

12345 16789:; <2;=; >9;=�<2;=? ?�%����������/��#������@�������������”�����%�������*���������A����”+B�.��/��#�����”������C����%���#������������+&���%�**’����”��**��%��#�������������������
��������**��*��������%�#�������������#�.��C������.���”+�#��”�$������/������������A����”+��#��”�$�������������#����#�����������/��”����#����DE�������’��/��������D�(%�����$������/������)����������#���������%D’������’���D�(�����”�$������/������)+E%�����������#�/����/���������#���#��”$�������.��/�FGHI�JHKLM&�����������������������”����C�������/������������#���@$�������������#�����”�����”������������������������������������+ ���$#�������”�”����������”�����A�����+��#���������’���”���������������#���%�������������.��/��”��%������������”�������N�$�����$������%�������������”��������HKFO�POQROSK�SORTI���”������C�����#��$����������#���������”�������+� ��.�”���#�$�������$������$#����C��+�U�����#������%�������/��#�������%�������*�����������@����/��#����������������”������@������������”�.����.����+�����������C��
�������������������*+V�����.�����’����/�**������*��$*�����������”�������”��������#�����$$�����”������������������”����*������+W�C�����#��%���*�$��X����������#��$$��$�������������������C�������%�*”��+��Y������C�����”���#��$��X�������*���C*��%������”������”����”�����/�**

���������������
���
��������������������������������
���� ���� ��!��”���#�$�%����#�������&�����’�(��� )

#��$����*����+����+�”��”�*�*����������,���-��.��/&����������,�����0��/ ���

� �
�123453657�89�:;<�=>?�=>[email protected]�@=A>@�1BC�DEEFGG�HFGIHJEIFK�LFMNHF�OPOJQOLJQJIR�GIOHIGST3UVA�W7X5Y�<8�3�<8X4;�Z4<[49�<[4U�8]̂_�

T8X4; T[]73̀U a8U<U b3U<�a8U<

c8̂�_̂ U<�U<3]<�3�<[]73̀�678]7�Y8̂�;39�]73̀39̀�]7X5Y�<8�8<[7]�<[]73̀U
����d��$�������”������
���#����������
������#�����d�������+efghi��j**���d�����”�/��
�������d��’����������*�/��
+�k�����’�����������’�/��
�%�������#������”������#��l����������������*����*������#����+��k��������m$����”�����”������”��#��j��”��������#�����’���” *��������� �*��’���”�
��/��#���������’������$����d�*��’����*������d�����������������”������*����”������m$����������/��#������”���$��$�������������%�������������$���%��”�����#�j j� �d*��������
����*����#�n”+�(o��”��������#�*”���������d*��%��������m��������������”������������”���%�������*������*’)+�

DEIJPJIR�pFIOJQG

Weekly Brainstorming Projects
Easy Chairs Training Program
The Leaders of Easy Chairs (EC), Dwight Rickenbacker and Ike Omar, have decided
that they want to customize their management training program to fit the company both
stateside, abroad and online. They have tasked your group, BMGT 485 Class
Consulting Firm, to create a program that features the top ten skills they believe an
Easy Chairs manager should possess in a contemporary business arena. Rickenbacker
and Omar are confident that if their managers have these skills the company will profit
immensely.
Dwight, who is guiding this project, has given you a course outline, the list of skills, and
course material he believes will enhance the managerial candidates in their training. He
has also given you some of the most common examples of the skill in action so that he
can see those candidates that apply the skill well and those who need improvement. He
wants your firm to develop the best answers to these scenarios and present them
to him for evaluation. This way he can determine if the candidates are a good fit for
EC and where he can help them to improve going forward.
Dwight envisions the program class to work as follows:

• Each week the firm will be given a small project, case study or activity to
complete that relates to one of the skills he deems important to company
success.

• The firm, and you as a member, will brainstorm the activity answer discussing as
a team the best way the manager can employ the skill to complete the activity.

To help the firm better Dwight has supplied a corporate history of Easy Chairs.

Company History

Dwight Rickenbacker and Ike Omar were two American Army Veterans who
wanted to make a difference for their fellow wounded veterans. They decided
that they wanted to make semi-customized wheelchairs. After researching the
idea, the two vets agreed that they were going to do something unique with
the wheelchairs. Dwight and Ike decided to make the wheelchairs with 3-D
printing with easily replaceable parts so repairs could be done by someone
with basic mechanical skills. They also agreed that they would only hire
veterans as employees.

Dwight and Ike started their business, EC’s five years ago in Birmingham,
Alabama. Since then, the business has grown exponentially. Last year gross
sales were over $7 million and was projected that the business will reach $9
million by the end of next year.

A significant part of Easy Chairs’ success has been through Internet sales.
The company website is geared to the American market. The average cost of
a non-motorized chair is $59.00, half of the cost of a simple product found at
Walmart. The battery-operated models average between $500 and $600,
almost a quarter of the traditionally produced models. Prices for parts for the
chairs are varied but the most expensive part is the battery for the mobile
units, which is priced at one-fifteenth the price of an average battery. The
company can customize colors, add oxygen container carriers and other
features that improve the wheelchair-bound person’s life for minimal cost
because their computer program allows the chair to be designed to each
person’s specifications before manufacturing. Last year, Rickenbacker
decided to sell their products overseas both via the internet and through
licensed distributors. Currently, they have agreements with distributors
in Japan and South Korea. They hope to expand more abroad and are
considering adding manufacturing operations abroad as well.

����������������
���
����������������������������
������������
�������
����������!�”���
����
��
������
�����#������$���%�����%���&�’�(���
��)*

������������
������+!�

�,
�,����������,�������,����,��
����,������
�,����
��,�������,���,
���,
,
�,����
���,�#�,���� ���

-./�01�2345674474�2785797�:;7<�=>095?7�@43=7>50>AB34:0C7>�47>95B7D�E3:�068<�-/�01�B34:0C7>4�4F<:;7<G>7�H7I56H�5:JKLM�NO�PQRSTURRUR�PUVSUWU�XYUZ�[NWS]U�̂RQ[USN_�̀QRXNaU�RUWS̀Ub�cQX�NTVZ�KM�NO�̀QRXNaUR�dNQV]�]UR̀SPU�XYU�RUWS̀UXYUZeWU�ÙUSWU]�ST�RQ̀Y�fVNdSTf�XUaRb�gYUT�̀QRXNaUR�hUTeX�Yh[[Zi�XYUUeR�NOXUT�RSfTSOS̀hTX�]hahfU�]NTUb�jT�Oh̀Xi�kblbPQRSTURRUR�̀NVVÙXSWUVZ�VNRU�hT�URXSahXU]�mKn�PSVVSNT�h�ZUh�]QU�XN�RYN]]Z�̀QRXNaU�RUWS̀UboUh]�aNUp�YXX[pqqdddbUTXU[UTUQb̀NaqhXS̀VUqrrKsrtuSvwwr]XfxdcOlN�dYZ�RQ̀Y�h�fh[yzYU�hTRdU�SR�[NN�OUU]Ph̀{�aUhRQUR�|N�QRQhVVZ�TNTU�hX�hVV}�hT]�[NN�UhV�̀QRXNaU�UTfhfUaUTX�|PNXY�STXUThV�hT]�UvXUThV}bjT�NTU�]hZi�XYNQfY�STXUThV�hT]�UvXUThV�̀QRXNaU�OUU]Ph̀{i�dU�̀hT�VUhT�aNU�hPNQX�hT�NfhTSRhXSNT�XYhT�h�~���dSVV�YhWUONQT]�NQX�ST�h�ZUh��T�NfhTSRhXSNT�XYhX�]NUR�TNX�[SNSXSRU�hT]�WhVQU�̀QRXNaU�OUU]Ph̀{�hR�XYU�QVXSahXU�VUh]�aUhRQU�hT]�XYU�{UZ�]SWU�NO�[URUTXhT]�OQXQU�RQ̀ ÙRR�SR�PQZSTf�SXeR�YUh]�ST�XYU�RhT]�ST�XN]hZeR�̀QRXNaU�Ua[NdUU]�dNV]b�zYUU�SR�TN�NNa�ON�̀Na[Vh̀UT̀Z��ZNQ�TUU]�[Nh̀XSWU�[hhTNSh������������������#���
������� ����
����

��%��#���
��!~hXUfNSURp�cVNf���lUWS̀U�hT]�lQ[[NX�iLr��WSUdR �����������UhX����NN�QZ�SR�XYU�hQXYN�NO���UhX�N��NN��|dddbfUhXN[NNb̀Na�}���h�RSa[VU�hT]�UOOÙXSWU�RZRXUa�ON]UVSWUZ�NO�̀NTRSRXUTX�hT]�̀NTXSTQhVVZ�Sa[NWSTf�̀QRXNaU�Uv[USUT̀URi���N�XYU��vXh�jT̀Y��XYUUOOÙXSWU�dhZ�XN�Ua[NdU�ZNQ�[UN[VUi�hT]��lhVUR�XYNQfY�lUWS̀U��|dddbRhVURXYNQfYRUWS̀Ub̀Na�}�YNd�XN�RUVVaNU�XYNQfY�U[UhX�PQRSTURRi�UOU\hVRi�NQT]�RhVUR�hT]�U[QXhXSNT�|XYU���o�R}b��QZ�YUV[R��fhTSRhXSNTR�VhfU�hT]RahVV�XN�RZRXUahXS̀hVVZ�ah{U�aNU�RhVUR�ON�VNdU�̀NRXRi�XYNQfY���RSa[VU�[ST̀S[VURb����������������
� ¡�¢£¤¥¦§�̈©���� ����ª�����ª

����������������
��
�������� ���������������������������
���������� ����
!��”

!��
����###$�����
������$���������%����&��'(�)**����+#,� ��-

./01�203456�70589�:5;�<0=>3�05�?>3/[email protected]�.8AB4=8CD5E06A:1F4=GHI�JKLLMMN�OMHPQRM� SMTUMVWMX�YZ�[]Y_̂̀àbac�de_fdccdg�hi�jakfd_fdadlf�mbakf̀hlkbfc�nfd�kod̀f�bpaqSrXMZ�QU�TPIR�UK�sKtrR�KN�uvwxyz{|�}u~v�w�x�y�����WrU���PU�PWKrU�trRUKVMX�XMUMNUQKN�sQXRU��ttKX�QN��UK�U�M�QNsK�XPT�Qt�WMLK�Z����Ks�WrRQNMRRMR�WMLQM�M�U�MI�TXK�Q�M�RrTMXQKX��uvwxyz{|�w{|��u{��HrU�KNLI����Ks�trRUKVMXR��KrL���MRtXQWM�U�M�RMX�QtM�U�MI��MXMtMQ�M��QN�Rrt���LK�QN��UMXVR����MN�trRUKVMXR�PXMN�U��PTTIZ�U�MXM�R�KsUMN�RQ�NQsQtPNU��PVP�M�KNM���N�sPtUZ���S��WrRQNMRRMR�tKLLMtUQ�MLI�LKRM�PN�MRUQVPUM����Y�WQLLQKN�P�IMPX��rM�UK�R�K��ItrRUKVMX�RMX�QtM���M�sKLLK�QN���QRrPL�tKVMR�sXKV���}��z}���y���Z�P�trRUKVMX�RMX�QtM�tKNRrLUPNtI�QN��M��KX����HM�NQtM�UK�U�M�trRUKVMXR�IKr��P�MZ��U�M�sQXV�RPIR����Kr�LL��QN�U�M�trRUKVMXR�IKr��PNU������u��xy����}|�{�

����������������
��
�������� ���������������������������
���������� ����
!��”

!��
����###$�����
������$���������%����&��'(�)**����+#,� ��-

����������������
��
�������� ���������������������������
���������� ����
!��”

!��
����###$�����
������$���������%����&��'(�)**����+#,� -�.

����������������
��
�������� ���������������������������
���������� ����
!��”

!��
����###$�����
������$���������%����&��'(�)**����+#,� -�-

� ./01123�45678899:�;9<=>[email protected]�ECFGHIC�HI�IJCKHGB�JLAMCKNI�OHLCKNAL�GN�PDNLCJLCDCQLRKASR

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ���)

*++,-./0.123�45�60-710�89,+.:9-;;;�<=>[email protected]�DBCEFGB�D?H?F>?FG>�HIJKHG?>�[email protected]=�[email protected]=NJIO?�[email protected]�������ST�
������������������
�������U”���������
������������”�����������S��#����T�������T������”������
�����������’�������
������
�������
����
���
�S��V�����”$W���#��#�X�����������������V�T�
����
���
��U”�����!���������������������”���������’�!�����
������
�������Y������U”�����!����������
��������”���
��’�”������
������
������$Z��������������#����
��
����
���
����������������T�������������T�����#���U”�������
��������
������
�T���������������T��”����!$�[����X
����������
�������!��������’����#��!����”���
�’������T����Y�#�������T��X�����#������
����T��!��������������#�T�’���T�����������������S�������!����’���T���
$[�����
������
�””����”���’����’���!��#��!�����
������]�
�””��������
������]���������
��
��̂��”���������������������
������!������&��������
�””���������������
�����
$����������������
�#������’���������$[�T�’���’���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ���)

*���+, ��’�!�������
������
������-.��
���������
�����
��
���������!��

������”���/������#������������

$� �0
�����1�2�����/��/������3������/���”��������
“�����’�������
�������4″�����������������2���2�����$567899�:8;<=>���/����#���
����2��3��#��’���”�������!��4����������
������
������$�?������/����
����’���!�������2�����”‘����2�������
���3�/���”�������������
�����’����#��!���
������
�������
����
���

��#$��
������
��������#���������#�������
�1�
���
��������”�����
���
����!�
���
�’���������4�����������3����!��”���
$�?������/�������2����’�/������
������
���������������
���’����
���1�2�������/����”�2��
��/��������������
0��”��������

$ �0
���
���������3����
����#����/������
�����
�’����
�””�����������#���&�’&���������3����!�’��������4����������/��4″���������
������’�����2�
��”�����
�����������3��$?������������@�A����������’�#���
������
�������
����
���
������
����������”��
�B��1�
����#”����������4����������
������
�����������2��’���/����2�����������)CD��’����
����

�/����/�����#�����!����”�/������’���”������
�����
������
�’������2����3��#������”���!������
������
��������4″�������
$�EA�2�”��F����C)D��!������
������
�����������
����&�����������
���������!&�����2���������”���
$EG����
F

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� )��*

+��, �� ��������
�������
�����
��������’����������������-
�*��.&��/��.���!����������0��������$�12���������”��3456.��’����
����
������������7��3������7����������”�����
���’������”�
��������
�����
��������8″�������$�1����
‘�����9�
�����46).��’���
�����
�������7��3������7����”����”�����

�#�������”����
�#����”����8���������
������
������$�1:�;�”���9�
�����4 ‘��������”��3-
���
������
��������
��8����������5.��’����
����
�#�������;�
���

�#���������!�����’��������
��7�$�1����
‘�����9�
�����4 �����
��!���
��������������������
�;3�<�
��%.�����������
��”��’��
�;3�;��#�����%.����6%.$�12�����������”��34,����3������������’�’�������
����
���”���������!������
������
��������
�������’����������’������3���3���#������;����$�1=����
74+�!������
������
��������8″��������������3���”���
���������������
$����
����
�#������������”��3-

��������
�>!���?�����)5.��������7��3����������������������”��[email protected]�������
�A
� �
������4 ���
���!������#���
�����
��
�;��#����%������%�����
�������8″��
�����������������!�8�
���!����
$�1 ���
“45).��’���
�����
��!������������3�’�����������3������;����
��������
“����������
�������������”�����
$�1B����
42�
���


�����!��#��������
�;��#����/.�����5.��;�������������7���#����”�������C��!;��������
������
��������8″�������
$�12���������”��345�.��’����”����
��
����
������
���
‘�������
����
��������3C����
�������8″�������������”�������$�1:�������2�
���

�9����#4��.��’����”����
�;����������3������
������3���
���”���
������”�����������
������8″�������$�10�������4D�����
�������8″������������!���������7���#����#�����
�#������
�������
�E�$*�;�������������$�D��
��
����*$6.�3���&����&3����������
��’������
��������’�E*$%�;�������������6$

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� )��*

+,�����-��#�.�
�����/0
�1��������������2����������
������
��������
����������3��������������#����1��������
��1$� ����”
�!��#���������������������
��������1���1��������”�����1������������4�
���


�����!1$5�1���
��������
�!��
���3����
������
���
‘�������
���������6 �����”�1������
������
�������������”���������!��#���������”���$�7�1��������������!������1���
�����”�1������������
�����&’����!�����
������
�����#��������1�������4����3��!���”��������
$�8���#�����9��#������!��������1������
������!��”:
;�����
���’�4�����
������
������6�#������#��3��#���#���”�������!������
������
�����������4��’���1����4�
���

����9
��������!���������������������”����������������#��������!
�!��4���1$<�
����3��!������
������
�����������
����1��������9

����

��”������
������
�������
��
�����4��3$�0�!�����2″������������
��������
�����
���������������������������!����
1��’���������2″��������!��
��#�1$�;���’����#��!���
������
�������
����
���
����”��������
���������
� ����3�
����”�
��������
�������2″�������
������3���”�’���������!�������2″�������$�+.�416�#���&=�!���9
�>?����
������!���
�����
@/%AB��’�0�����������
����
�#����
#��������”����
�4����
���’�”������
������
������$+
����
�’�/

.�����������.�����!���8�1
����C����������

�����1�,�������
�������������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� %��)

)%*��’���
�����

�������+����������!����������”������,�����,����
���’���”����-“�������$�./����
01’������������������,����-“����������������2�*��’����
����

�+����+�#��������������,�
���

�#���������”������$�.3����
405��+��������’�������
����
�#����’��!������,����-“����������������”��+�#��
����
�����
����������+�������
�6���+�”���$7�.8����+�2�*�#����’��!������,����-“���������’����+���������
�������������
�6���+�!���$70�.9�������
�:
� �
������0�2*��’���
�����
������,��4��������’���”�����
�����������”������
�������-“�������$.;�����0<��4�����������
�����=�
��������������&(������
��’���
�����

����+��������,��4��������’��”�����
��,����
��������
������
�������#�
�>���
�!�����
��-“�����$� ‘�+���
��#�����������������+����
���
����������+�#��������������’���+������
������
���������������!����
����+��
�����
��
����+�����$?�+������������
������
�������
��
�����
��!��’���������
���’�+�������”��+����
������$�������
������
������>
���”�����
������#����+�’���������������’���+�����������$�@�������+�’��������+�������
�A�����+������
�����
�4��#���$
�����!��,����#������
�����
�����4

B�����������B�����!���C+”�
��’�?�����
��������������.����D�#�C��1�����C���0

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� )��)

�*
�������&’�������+������������
�����”����������,������
�����
����*��-��#��
�������
�,����$�.��������,���������,�����*����#�,
�/0123�����,��������,��’����������
������-��!���������!���40/563078$���������,�����,��
����,�-��#�#����
�������!���
�!����
���#�,
�����
�*�+������!�����#�,����
������+�$�������
�����
*�����!��
������”�����
�������$�9��,��������”�,���+�������+������”�����������”��”�����,�������������”����


������!����,�����!��������
&�”���������,*�������-��!��+����������!$:��������
������
������
�������
����
���
������#�������”�,��������
�����;�
��#����,���������!���
������’���
������!�����’�������������������<�=��’���
�����
���������>���������?���
“��
���
��

�������������,���”�������#�������,���������
������
�������(��
����$�)�=��’���
�����
���’����>���������?��
����������
�����

$�@:�+�”���A�
�����B
�����������=��’����
����
�+���������������”����

�����������+���������������+����’�
����,����*������������”������’��������������”��������”��
��������
$�@C����
-B<�=��’����
����
�#����#�������
������

�����
���������
���������
������������
�����
��������������$�@D
EB��=��’���
�����
���”�����������������!,���-�
����
��”��������-��������+�
���

��������”��������’�������$�@����
‘����B<�=��’�F�������
��
����
������
��������
���’����������������!�#�������������������+�
���

�#���������”��,$�@
����
�’�B��=��’����
����
�@�!���)&�GB�+��������������(���-���
“��
��’������
������������������
������,���”�������������
�������H”�������$�@�������BF���
��<�=��’���
�����
���”�������
���!������”��,�#��
��
����������,�������
�>���,!���$?�I���������������������,��)=��’����
��#���!�������>��’�����?������!����
�����”����
�������
������!���$�@J�������
�K
� �
������B��=��’�������
�����*
�;�����,��
�+�
��������#�������
������’���
����,�����+���!��������[email protected]
�D��
�,B

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ���)

%*+��’�
��””��
�,�������������’���,��-����
�.��!�������/����#����������������$�0
����
�’�12���
�������
�’��������
��������-��/����
#�������������”��������’�����”��,�������/.��������!�

������&,�
��$�03�����������”��/14����/�5�+��’����
����
����
�������”��/�#��
��
����������/.����������
�6���/�!���7�����-��������’�����������
$�08�������
�9
� �
������1:�����������’�#�������
������
��������$�:���’��
���
��������
����
�����
���������������!�����!����
“��
��#���������������
��’���������(��
���
��

�������������/���”�������;�������
��<=>[email protected]���”���’���������$ ����#�����#�����’��
����
“��
��������
������������
�����������������#����
������/�������������&����������-B�C�������
��������’���
“��
����������+��’�/���!������
����
�,������������������D”���������
[email protected]@A���”������;��������
��#,���
�’���������$C����/��.���������������D����������
������
��������D”���������/���!�������
���”�������/���
��”������
�����
�!���!����/�������”������
������”�������L����-��!�/������
�����
.�M�����/
�!������
$:���
�������D�����!�
����
�����
������������������+��’����
����
�,���������������”����

�����������,���������������,����’$�����’�����
������������
������,��������

���#����������!���������������/������
��!�#����/����”������������������������
��!�������������������������������”������.

�””����������/�����
“�����������/���
����$:��
��������’�”��
�����L����������������������������������
�!��’������/���”����/������
�����
���
/��.���
������������D��
������$ N�����������N�����!��
����������,��-��C�/� �.
� �”�������O���C�/
������������ �

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� )��*

+���”�#����’���”��
����������, ‘�����
��������-�
�.���/�������������
������-��.���/����.�#�������������������0�
���

�#���.��$� ‘����.����1������.�#��1�$23�4567�89::;<:9=>���.����#���
����’����-��#�$�+��.�#�������0����������������”��”����������������
���������-��!�0�������������
������!����������������
������!�������#���
���������
$+��
��?����
����.������
�����
�����$� ‘�.���!����0����0��������0�.���������-��.������
�����
‘����
�����������������������0���������������������

������”��������������?”������������.������”��.1
�0����������$ ‘�.���������������.���
��’���������
��1
�0��-!������������
���.�0�’����������������!��������������������
������
�������

���$� ‘�.��1������������!����”����������#��!�����!
���-��
���
��
���.����”��
�������’�������������7:[email protected]���-���������������
-�������
�����1
�����$B����������’����
����C�#&���””��!���
������
�������
����
���
��������”��
�����D��������E��’���
�����

�.�
��������!���
1��#�����

��’�
���
������������
��
�’�������������-��”��!�������0�
���

$�F����
‘����G)�E��’���
�����

�.������?”�������������”��.�”������
��
�C�
���
�����

��.��
���
“������
����
������
$�F����
‘����G*HE��’����
����
��?”����0�
���


����-��#����������(�������
������?”��������
��#�����*E��’�I�I�0�.��
��?”��������
��������!$�F����
‘�����B�
�����G%JE��’���
�����
�0���������������”����
���������”�������������!&��!����!������?”�������
���-��”�������0�
���

$�F����
‘����GJ�E��’�”��”��������������-��.�������
�������”��.��’����.��������’����”�����.�”����.$F����
‘����G

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� )��*

������������������
���������������”�����+,����!��,�-.�#����,�����������”��
�����/�����
������0″�������
$�12��
�� ����3–.��’�”��”������
�����”����
��������#��������
�����������”��
�������’���������#������”����

���$�1����
‘����3)�.��’���
�����
��””�����������”����
�!����!�������������������#������’����������
�����������+��������$�1����
‘����3�4.��’�+�
���


��
��
�������������
���������������������������,/������$�15������3�).��’���
�����
�����#�����!����
����������������’����������+��������
����
�����0����!�’��������0�����/��������������
����#��������,6�������������,�7��#�����������
����$1����
‘����3%*.��’���
�����
����6�������
�����!�������”��
�������’�������������0����!��’���+�����
������$�1����
‘����38�������!�����
������
��������!���
����,��
7�’�������
�����6
��������.��’���������$15�����39
�,�������
������6
�����:�
���+������#�,����
������
�����6
�”��
�������’����������������!�����6
���”������$�
��,���
�����
�������+������#�,��6����!!��!����!������;<=�#����,�����#��������’����,����������$
������������’��’���
�����
��������’����+���
�����!�”��
�������’�������������0����!��’���0��������
��������+���,���
��������������
����������������’���,$�9’����������+����)�.��’���
�����
�����������7��,�������
��,����’�,��6���!�����
�������”�����,�”����,$ ��
�����/���������”
����+��������”�����������
��”
��+������,��’���6
��������������,$� ‘����>?<@A�������������,��,��������0″����,������
�����
�������7��+������$B�����������B�����!C�����/���������””����D����E���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

*�����”���������’�#���&�’&�������
�����
������������+$�*��,-���
�����������!�����.”�������
��/����.”�������
����������,����!���/��#���$���������,����
�����
���+�����012345$6
�,��-���
����������’����#��!���
������
�������
����
���
�����,��
��
����
�������#
�’�����������
�����
����
��������������
“��

�7894���������,����
���������+����!��’�,�������������”��,$ �������!�����.����������
������
��������.”����������
“������,�#����������”�/�����,���’�
�������������
�����

����/�������,�������”��,-
����+����!��”���
$:�����%�;��’���
�����
����-��
������������.”�������
����
���������������;�#�������+��/�����������”��
��$�*�������/���!��
��������!����#�������
������!���#���
�����
����+�
������,�/����<889��.”�������
$=�������’���
����”����,���”��

��������
���+��!���
������
�������
����
���
��������#���”��”������������-��
�����>);��’����
����
�#����
�������������
������
��������.”���������#�������!�������/��$
������������&��������”����”�
���!��������/��+��’����#������
��,�/,� �
��!���$�?�� @���”AB�;��’����
����
������������������#
�’���������/�
���


��������$�?C��!���D����A��;��’���
�����
�#����
�����������!�����.”�������
�#���������
$�?����
‘����A��;��’���
�����
�#���������
�.���������”��”����’����,��������
���
‘,��!��.”�������$�?E
��/��F��
+,A

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

*+,��’�-����������
�����
�#�������������������”��.�#��
��
����������.�������
�/���.!���$0�12�������
�3
� �
������4)�,��’���
�����
���”�����������5�����
�������6″���������
��������
���’���
#������!5�
���


$�17
��5���8��
9.4:��.��;,��’����
����
�#�������������������”��.�#��
����
������
����������.<���������
�/���.�”���$0�12�������
�3
� �
������4%�,��’���
�����

�.����.����<��
�����������5������!����
��������6″�������
������!�
�����������$�1�� �=���”4;;,��’����
����
�#�����������������5����������”������
���(���9�5������”��������
“��
�$�1>���
��&
�8��
�.4�?,��’���
�����
�#������”����������5��������@#�������6″��������
“��
��#�������������$1A������4�;,��’���
�����
�������%���������”��”����’����.����������!�������6″�������$�17
��5��8��
9.4�*,��’���
�����
�#���
��������������”�����
��������
������������”�����
��!�����$1B�!��>�#4:��.���,��’����
����
�#�����������������5����������”������
���
��#�5����”������
�������$�1>���
��&
�8��
�.4:��.�������)���
�����
�#�����������5�
���

��5������������!�������6″�������C���������!�����
������
�������’���
��������
��
��”�.������$�17
��5���8��
[email protected]����
����
�����5������
�����
�������!�#���������#���������’��
��
�����.�����D����
�������#���.���!��������
“��

�.��<������������[email protected]����> ��
����.
������������”�.����5.��)�E�
���.���!��FA��9��.��
����”����.�!���������������������!��
���9�������5��������
����!��’��#�������”����������6����������
������
�””�����6″�����������������’�����!!��
��’������5�����
�!��
��
�.��������$B�����������B�����!

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

����
��!�������!���
�””�����������
*����”���������������������������������������������
��’���
������
������$�*��+���������,)�
�#���������-��+
�’��
��������-�������
�����

�������!�����!����’����-���#���������!�����������������
�””���$�.����������������”�������!����������
��!��������

������!���”�����������������
������
�����������
$/�#������0
��������������&-��#
��!��������������������
��
�������������������
���������
��’���#�1�������!�������
�’�����
�����
�������������$�2����������
�-�
��’���3456����”��17�.�+�������+�������������-���#����
�����”�������������
�������#��’����������
��
���-1�
�””��������
������
�����

���.�����(��
�’������������!�8������’�������
������9���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*+��������������
�”��
��������
$�,��������
������
������
�������
����
���
�������”���������������”�
�����
�������!�����
�’������������������”�#����-��������
���&��.��!$/012345�/674890234

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*

+�����������
�””���+�����������
�””�����
������������
������������’�����
�����
�,��#���������’�-�����������
$� ��”�������-�����
������#����
����������
�#����������������-��������������������
�����

�-����������������
�#����’���������.�$�������
�������-������
����������
�����#����������������������������
������
�����

�-������”�����������
�������$+�����������
�””����”������
�����.���������.”��������’�����
�����
�,����
���������
��������-�����������������&�.”�����
�������!����-�������-�����������������,����’�-��������$�/����������������-���������
������0����!����%1��’���
�����
���
���������

������.”�����������!�����

��’���#����-���!�!������”��-�2�����!��
����������������”��
����,-�”���������$3$�2����
‘����34����”��������

��’�,��
������
�����!��

��
���
�’����������51$�6�����������
����
�������’����,��
��”��������#����)�1����-��!�����������������
�����������������
�����������
$2
����
�’�3*)1��’���
�����
�#�������
��”�#�������”����
�������������������������
��������&����$2����
‘����3*)1��’���
������
�����������
��
����
������”�����
�����”��������5)1��’���
�����
�#���
����
������”�����
$�2����
‘����36
�-���������������������

�������,����-�����
�������”����������
���������

����-�������������,���’��
��’������������$ 7�����������7�����!4����8�9�
����
����������������’�#���� ���’���
�’�������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �%��)

�����
�””��� �����
�””�����
������’���������
��’���
��’��


�����$����������������������’����������*�”��������”����
�������
�����
����+���������”������������
������,���������,�����������!*$�-��.
���+������+����
������
������
�������
����
���
������������
��
��!�”����
�/�
���*���

��#������������������)0��’��������
����
�”��’���������������������������'”���������
������������
������
�””������”��
��������
$�1�� �2���”3
���������%�0��’���
�����
�����

������!��!���”
��*”�����*��
������”����������������������
���������������+��!����������
�&�
�����������’�����
������
������$�14����
+3)50��’���
������
�����������
��
����6����

�!��!�����”���������70��’���
�����
�#���
����6����

�!��!�’���������������!�#���������”��*$�1����
‘����3%�0��’���
������
�����������
��
����,�����””
�����”��������7�0��’���
�����
�#����
���,�����””
�’���������������!�#���������”��*$�1����
‘����3/�����!��
�””��������
�������*��
��������������”�����
�””��������
���
����������������
�����
�������
����*��������
������$�������
��������������,����’���
�����
�#���”��’�����6����

�!��!������,�����””
����”�����#�����������,����’���
������
�����������
�������
������������

�������!����,����
����$ �����
�””�����
�����������������,��������””���������
�������,��������!��89:;<=�”����

���
���
�����,������#�’�������$>�����
������
�””����”���’����’���!��#��!�����

���>�”������?��”�@�
+���’�#����’��������AB��+�����B����C

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��)

���’&
�������
�””���*��������������
�+���’������’����


���!���
�����
�#����������������’���,������
�����
������
�����-
�������������$������.��”��������
����������
���������,����/��#���!��+�
�����’������
#��
�#������������
�#����������������!�������
��������+�������.”������������������!���#����’�������
“��
���������������������������(����$0�’���������,������!���#�������������������
�-�������#������������������������������!���$1��������
������
������
�������
����
���
��.”�����!�+��������!��������+���
���
��’�,�������”���
��23��’����
����

�,�������
��’��
������!��

����
���’���������������

��”���+����������’���$�4*��’�5)63��’����
����
�’��
����,������
������������

�������”�������,��+�����

���������&�������’���”����
��”���
��’&
��������”����

�����
���/��#���!��+�
�$�47����
/5��
�����
�”��’���/��#���!��+�

����������������
��’&
��������������
$�4�����
���5))3��’���
������
�����������
��
��/��#���!��+�

�����”��������2�3��’���
�����
#����
��/��#���!��+�

$�4����
‘����5

������8�
�””��������
������8���������
��
��1��”���������������������
������!������&��������
�””���������������
�����
$����������������
�#������’���������$��!���”�’���’���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

*
�+�������
������
����
�����
�#�����,-./0,��
����1��#���!��2�
���������������������
�����������

��
��2������+�����3����#�+
��2������’��������$���#����”����
������������”���
�������������������������1��#���!��2�

������������”����
�#����#�������
�����
�����
��������
����
$
�������������
�””���4�
“����
�����������3
�������
���”����������������#����’�����
�������#��1��
�����+�2�
���


�������
����
������
��!����������������
�#���$������������+���1������2��1����� �
��!������

�!��!����������������
+�’����
��
������������������+�#����2����
�����������������!’�����������������#�+���������+��
�����$�5����
���’���������+����”����
�����
������!����������������”��
�����������
�������������
$6��
���#����
������
�������
����
���
��������
��������������1�������
+���������
�����#�+��78��’�*������������������
��
������������2��1����1��!����������
��”�”�����
�����������”���’���$�9:+’��
��1����!;7%8��’������
�2��#���������!�
��’��<&=>�������1��+����’����#���2����������!��
������������������
$�9
��1����!����”�;6���1��2���������’�����”��”���+����2�������������������#�����’�+���#���������1������
#�������”�������!���
������
�����������
�������������������
?

@�����������@�����!6������5�
��A��#���!��5�
����’�#���� ���’���
�’�������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*

�����
�””���������
�”�������+����
����������,������’�
��
��#�+�’������
����
����!���
�””���$� ��’���
����������������’����,��’�������,+��������������������
�-����#�+
���(������������’�,���#�������
��”$���������+�����+�+���!������
����
�”��’������������������������������������!+���.��”����
$ ‘�+��������-��������+���”��������������#������+��������������������#����
������
������
����
���
��������+����”�+��������
������’����#�����,����!���������
���������
�”��’�������������’�����
������
����������������+����������������������������$/�������0%�1��’���
������
�����������
��
����������������������
�””��������”��������)�1��’��
�����
�#����
����������������������
�””����’���������������!�#���������”��+$/����
‘����02������������+��������
�����
�#���”��’�������
��������������������”����
�#����”�����3� ‘�+�������������
�����
������”������������������+�,������4���������””�������+���������+�����
�����
�#��������+����$�5����������’�+������
�����
�����
�������!�’�����������������+������-��”������������+�’��
��������������������$

6�����������6�����!
���!��!��������
�������
���������������������!��
�����2�”

6�����������6�����!2����7�
�8�������2���
‘����
�������””���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*

+�����!�#������!�,���
�����
-.��������������#���
������
����������
������������������#���
��
$/01234�567896:724;<�!����
���#���
“����������=������,���”������������������������$������=��”�������&�������'”��”���#�����
“�����������
����,��>������!�����������������,����
����������,�?��#������
������”��>��������������!���������!��$ ����,�������
����
��”��
�����������������,��’�,������
�����
��#�������������,������
���

‘��
���������������������”����,�>��������!�,������!���������������$<�!�������>��
���,��>���#����,��������
�����#�������@
������!�’��������#�,���@
���””����!��������>����
�������������$������=��”�������,���
������
���������������>��
�������>���’��’������������!�����
����
������������
�������
���!�,��>��������
������������������������������������������������������������������������
��’$������’�#��������������
��>������!���#���������������=���’���
������
�������������#��������>�������
������������������”��’�������
��������!��������?��������
����
������
������
����
���
���A��’�”��”���#�����!��������
“�����”������,������������’����������”��
���”�������
�#����>����
�����,��������#�����������!$�B��!��C������
DE����,���A��’���
�����
���������������#����������������
�����
‘������’����������”�����������������$�BF����
?D

G������H�
��I���������G���
�’�����
��������””���

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

������!����””����������
�����*�����
�����
�����

#�����”������
�����
������
$�+,�#-�����
����.//0��’���
�����
�������
��’��
�������12������!����#�����������������//0�������
�’��
�������12������!������”��������
����
���������”���
�””������”
$�+3�1�”���4�
�����.��0��’�����””2���
�����
�#��
��”��1���
�������
����������#�����!����
��”�#�����1�
���

��!���$�+5�����.,����2�)�0��’���
�����
�’������������!�����
�����#��������
�����������
��’��
������!�”���
�’���
��������6″�������$�+7����
8.)�0��’���
�����
�#�����”��’������9���������”��8��!����8��
:������#�������������������”����������’���
��������������������”��������
����
������”�������
������”�������������1��
$�+3�1�”��./%0��’���
�����
������1��������!�2�#�������8��!������
������
������$�+;�������<6″��

.��0��’�;�������
���”������������”�������
��������
����������1���������
������
������’��
�������$�+�����
��.��0��’�;�������
���������������1�������
�������’��
���������
�9���8��’�
“���$:�+�����
��.��0��’���
�����

�2�������6″������!�������”��1���
���������”���”��”����
�”������
�����
������$�+=����
������4�
�����.�>0��’����
����
�#����
����������’���1��8�������”������1������”������
������6″��������#�����!�����$�+3����
� ����������[email protected]��’���
�����
���”����������������6″��������
���������1�����6������������������
�������������#������
������
������$�+3�������A�
���

�4����#.�?0��’���
�����
������!������”����������
�������1����
���’�����!��������
������6″�������$�+;��������<6″��

.)�0��’���
�����
���������������’��
��������#�������2������������������
������
��������”��
��������$�+5�����.

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)


����
������’��
��������
���
����
����’����#�����!���������!������”��������
����
$�*�������
����#�+
�+�����!���,���,������
“�����”�
�””���������������
����”�����������������������-�’�����������,��
����#��.��!���
�����
���#����������

��
/ �����!�
����”����


����”�������+����”�+���#��.�������
����
������
�������
����
���
�������’�����$� ����”�����+������

��!���
�������������
�����’��
�������
�,�’�������+��������
�����.��’�������+���!�&”��’�����!���
������
���������!���0�����$
1������!���#����&���


�””��������2 ���������#�������”����

����������
�””�����
���#�+����
����������
����
�’����3��
��+4�����������
�#������������
�����
����4
������������
���������������+���”�������””�������,������!�����&����������
������
������������!��!�����”��”����������������������!+$�����!�����.��#�+������
�����
$�5�����0������$�5�����0��+���
��’$� �4
�#�������$6789:;<:=�>[email protected]�����������#������#�����.��,������!����’��
��������������
�””��������������’����������
�������
������
�����������
��������,������’�����#��.������
����+������
�����
�������””+����
����

‘��$D�’���������+����
������
��������
��’�������
���������
��#��������.��!��,�������”��+�”������

�����!���’���������������”�#����!�����
$�5�#�������’����
��
����
���
������
��#����+����!�

E�����������E�����!F�&G������”�
�’����)�G���.+���
����������������������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� ����)

��*
��������
������
��������
��

����������������+������,������
�����
$-��������
�����’�����+�
��”�������
��������”&�’&�����&���

���
������
�������”��”���”�������”��������������#������.�
���������
�����
�’�����%/��’����
����
�#����
���������
��������������#�����������”��
���������
�������������!,�’������������
�������
���”����
$�0 #�12��&�������’��������
����
����
�����������
������������
“�����’�!������
������
�������3″�������
����+�������!�������”��+����
�������������
��!������������������!�����

��’������������’������
“���$�0�����
��144/��’���!�&”��’�����!�
�����������
���&��.��
���������
���!�
�!��’������,�����!�����������!���”�����������,�%�/��’������”��’�����
$�0����
‘����145/��’���!�&”��’�����!�
��������!���

�,����,�!��������������!����,������������������6�+#�������”�����������,�%�/��’������”��’�����
$�0����
‘����1)7/��’���!�&”��’�����!�
��������!���
��������,����.�’���
��������
�����
������’������������!�����08 1����”�����������,�57/��’������”��’�����
$�0����
‘����18�#��””��!�7%/��’����
����

�,��������
������
��������
��

�������’���+�������,���,�����)�/��’����
����
���”���������!���
��������+���������
#������!���������������”��,+����
���’�”������
������
������$�0
����
�’��9,�����
�5)%1 ��
���
���.�������������”�����������’���”��’���������
��””��”�������������!��������”��,����
�:��������
����
��������������”������$�;����,�����.��������’�,������”��,��
�������
�����������,��������������
����,����������,�����+�����������’���,������
�����
$<�����������<�����!-�#����=�������>������!���””����>��������9�”��������’�����������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*

+�,��!�������’�-����
�””��������./�����
���
��”���0���”�#��’�����������#�-
�!����”��”�������������#�������-��1″�������!��$23456789�:87;566+���������

��’���!����0�
���

$�
��-����”����
������<�������������0�
����”��-��
�������0�”�����������!����
�#�����’��������”�-�����”����”
���0��������”��-����1″�������$+����’�������=
��

����������”�������<��-������
������
���������������0��
=�����
����������

������”��������
$>���#�������’�#���
������
�������
����
���
��������”��
�<��?�
����#���”������������������’����������-���”��������
�+�����
������
�����������
��-���
�������!��
����”��-������������������’�����0�
���


$������������
����
���
������”����������
���!���
�@%AB�CDE+�F+���/�����G�
������ �
��������
������
�����������������

��0����H��,&H�%,�’����’�����������”��-��$�CDE+�F

����
������
���������”
����=��”�������
��-��!���������?�0�’���������
������������’���”����!��#����””���������
$�)�A��’����
����
����
�������,��#���!��0����!�������0�������
����������’������’�����”�
��������
�������1″�������$�C+����
���F��������A��’����
����
����
�����������”�����-��’��������!�����!�������0������0�!!�
��

���#������
������
�����������-����=
�#���������
���!������
�����!���$�CG����#@�FIJA��’����”����
�#����.
�!��’������-��0���������!�2���
�������1″�������
�”��’����0�����’���������-���������������”������
$�CD�������
�K
� �
������FL������������
�””����-����
����!&��
���!���
���
�����$��@A��’����
����
�,��”�����!0�
���

�#����������
�’����#����������-���
��’������”�
���������������$�CM����
,F*@A��’�N$�$����
����
�������������
������
��������������$�CE
“���F�)A��’���
�����

�-����-�
��-���-������0����
�0����
���’�’������-���
������
�������!���
$�C/�0�”��F

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��*

�+,��’���
�����
�’������������#������-�����-����
���’�’������.���
������
��������”��
��������
$�/0�!��1�#2���
��������
��
����
���
���������!���������.��������
�3���”��.��
��������
������’�����.���$�4.���������’�����.������#������������’������#������5��.��������’�$�6���7
�-��#����8+�5�����8)%5����3″��

�’���9:;<=>���”��.��
�#���#������5��.�����!�����3��������?�[email protected]
�#��5��#��!������
������
���������”��
��������
�������5�����-���5���
��������������
��”

��”�������A��!�����”��”���#������!����#��5��
��3������.���”������$���
�����#����.������
������
����������������
�������’��������.����’����#�.
�����”�����$�6���
“��5��������.����.������������-��
��-��������!�
������.��7������������������”���������
�������������(�����.��’���’�$�@
5������’����������”�����
����
��������’���.�������������”�������#���.������$
�5��!���-������#��5��!�������������’���.�����!���
�#���������������3��������������������’��.������
�����
$
6�����”�����’��BC D&�EF��������’���
�”���’���������5��-�����BC D&�E����������
����������!���#��������”��������������

���������”���
$�@
�#��
“��5��’�������.������������
�’�����”��.��
�����’���
�����

����������5��-����������”����������BC D&�E���
��������������
������
�����������
��.$

0�����������0�����!G�#����4������������!���
���������������������

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �%��)

*�������������
������������
�����
�����������������!��!����”���
��������#�����!����
#������������”��+���������!�
�#��������������
������
�!��’������+���

�”������$�,�����-��.���������/0�#������!��������
��
��’�
��+������
������
��������������+�������������!��������
�����!��
����������+������

������������
��������
�����
�������
���#�#����������1�����’�����’����#��!
����
���
�����’����0234�*����+”������������’���”����������
����!�
�’������5������5��.�������”��������������
�������6″��������
����
���
�#��
�$*��������!�����”��+�
�#�����”�������!���’�����

�������
�7��”�����8�.+���”
�������
��.+�������������5$*�����#������������6″�������������������������
���””���
�’���.����”�+������6���
���
���
�������������!����
“���
��������������6���+&������������
��������+���������
�����������$��
������
�������
���
�’���������
��#��������”
�’������9��������:�.��
�������������������

��:�+�.��$������’��������”����
��������
���+�
�#����������
�!��#�.+�;<5������
��������
�������
�.+�����������)=5��’���������!���!����!�������”������
������
���������
����.�
���


$>����’�����*�����? �
���+����”����
�”����������
������
�������
����
���
������
��#����”�����������������
�������)5���������’���
�����!��������”
����������

&
���$�*���������
�����
����+�=�5�#����������
������
��������6″���������
��6�������$>��+��.����<5��’���
�����
�#���������������������������������������������
��+�.+����”���!���”��������#��’�������������!���’���5��������”�
[email protected]������+���
��>A B&�C���”������#��9��!������������
�������”��+��
-��������
����-
��”�������
�����
��������
����#�+$� �-
������������������������#��������
�����”��.���
�’������
������#����
�.�������������’��DD������������#�����.��’�������
������#���’���

����������������$E�’���������+���>A B&�C�”��
�����+���������
���

‘���”�
���������9��!������’������+����������������������������������������������
�����
-�����
������!��
�””���$

���������������
������
�������������������
���
�������
��������������� !����

���”
���###$���”
����$�����%&��
�����&
������&’���
&(����
&
����
���
� �)��)

*�”�’���+������’����
����
������
�������
����
���
������!�����+���������������
���������”����

$,������������+���”������”��
“������
�������
����������”����
��������������-�������������#���+��.�����/����#�+�’�������
�”�
���#�.���
����+��.����!����#�������
����
������
��������

������$0������+��
�����

��������-�����.
������-������+����-���������������
����
��
��������������”�����������’�+�������”��+��!���
�������
$ ‘�+�������������+��������������
���#�+����!������/��#����������+������
�����
��+���������#���-��”�������!��1����������
������
�����������������$
�����������
�������
�����2 ��’���
�����������

����2���’�����+�!��’������������
�����
������/������#�������������-�����””����������
���������������$���������’���������������������$�����������,#�����$

3�����������3�����!4
�����5�
���

� �������
��������,�����’�����������

���

�����
���

�������������
��
��������������
�������
���������������
�������� ���������
��������� ����
�������

�����������������
�������������
���

������������

���
��

���
���������������������
������

������
����

��
������������������
�����
�������
������� !�”#$%&�’#()*+,-�-,%.)$*/(0$1(2�������

���������������������
�����

��

��������������
���������� �
���������

������3
4,5/,�6*#-�’#()*+,-(7.-8,)�-,(,.-‘0����������
�������
���

�������
���
��������

������
����������

������������
��������
���������������������������������
9
���
�:*++#/$’.),�;$)0�6*#-�’#()*+,-(<�������� ������
��
��
��
�����������������
������
����������������������
�����
��
��������
��������
���

������

7./.=,�’#()*+,–,%.)$*/(0$1(>����?����
�3�@A��������[email protected]?��
�����������������
��� ����
�����
����
������
���

�����������>
�������������
��������
���

���������� ����

�������
�����

����������
��������
��

���
������
���
D��E

����
��������

���������
��
���
�F.%#,�*G�6*#-�H#($/,((!D���������
�����

��
����
���
��������������
���D��E

����������
�������
��������������������� �������
���9
��
���������
�I��
���
�9��
����������������9�

����������
���D����������9
�$//*F.)$*/���������
��
����������
���������
���������
������ ��������
�����9��
��

�������
�������
���I�
� �����
���

���

�����
�� ��
���

� ���������
� ��
� ���� ��
����
�����
��
���������� ������ � � �!”� “� “�#���$%� “% &�”‘(“%) ������ � � ‘$�”�%�*”#�+ ���� � �!”� %����$) � ������ � �� � ���% $%( #���*$� ,��� -��� &��”% �� $)$”%+.� #$�� �, )��( ������ � � �!”� #�$��”� � “% -��� &��”% ��/ -�� �$- ( ! ‘�# 0�1����
��2 0����2���
�� %����$) $ ������ �3,���� ( ��’��� 4″�* -��� �#’�- �+ 5*”����'( “%�’�( #��� (�� � ,�� )� �”%) $%( � �!”%) ������ �� �� � ��’!”%) ��
�������01���

+6��7 8��2���79 (&$�: $”�4� ������ �� $% �##����%”�- �� � ” -�� 4*$� �* – ‘”: $%( (“�'”: $&���-��� &��”% ��/ #��(��� �� � �!”� + 5*”� )”! � -�� !$’�$&’ “%�”)*�� “%�� -��� &��”% �� ��* ‘# -�� “�#��! -��� �,, �”%)+;� <���
���
���= ��
���� ��1�
���
��0
>* % -��� &��”% �� )��4�/ �� 4″” -��� ������ � &$� + ��� 4″” % ( $ � �*�( ���$%$) -��� ������ � � ‘$�”�%�*”#�+ ?% � �*�( “� �� �� $ ������ � � ‘$�”�%�*”#�$%$) � %� @ABCD �-�� �+. ABC �-�� � ���’ ��” ��� $%( �$%$) � �* “%,���$�”�% $%( “%� �$��”�%� -��� &��”% ��*$� 4″�* ������ ��/ �$’ � ‘ $(�/ ��##'” �� �� ��* � &��”% �� �+ABC �-�� �� �$% * ‘# -��E
C��� “�#���$%�’-/ ABC �-�� �� $”�4 -�� �� *$! $ *”����- �, $” “%� �$��”�%� 4″�* -��������� ��+ 5*”� $”�4� -�� �� &�”‘( $%( �$”%�$”% ����%) $%( # ���%$'”� ( � ‘$�”�%�*”#�+B � �& � �*$� $%- “%,���$�”�% -�� ���� �% -��� ������ �� ���� $&”( &- 0������ 1��
+

A?CCFGHA.5I >H5J AFK5?CIBK

��$�: �* ���� �� �, -��� �$�: �”%) $��”!”�” �”( %�”,- $%( ,�”�4 �# �% #���# ��”! ������ ���$”%�$”% � ‘$�”�%�*”#� 4″�* ������ ��)���# ������ �� �� ( ! ‘�# # ���%$'”� ( �����%”�$�”�%�$%$’-� 4*”�* ������ �� %)$) 4″�* �$”����/ �,, �� �� #�����”�%���$�: ������ � & *$!”��� $%( #���*$� � �, -��� #��(���� �� � �!”� �� ���( ��%�$�� “%,���$�”�% $%( ������ � , (&$�:

���

������
����

���������
��� ��� �������������������������� ��!��”#$���”��!�%���������������&$���”� �’�(�)��������$���!$����”����$�*�%��”#��$�����!�����������������(�+��$���”$&&%,�%���-�&&�”��#������$����%�������������.��$���!$����”(�����$”���$�����%����������������������”������$&�-$%������”#����$”#� �-�%����������������-�%����/���”���(������$”0
1 ����”!���$���”����2�����”��#$�$�’��”���”�� ��&$�3���’��������!�� ������$&&����������$���!$����”(������ ��&#�$&��������#�� ����”!���$���”�$3$�”���� ������������”�%����)45����”#����$”#�� ����������.���”#���#�$&��6’����”����!�%����/���”���(7��8���9
:�������;�
��8�<�����=�
�����>�
��?������@��8��

�;��
�=�
����8�
��8���A�=�
�;��

����
����<�8���
�<������������=�
�B
��� �

$�*�����������- $��� ����� ��3 �������’�”��”��$����”�%����/���”���’&$�����������������%���”����������’����#��$�C������””$�������!��#/$�*�!�����”&�”� ����������D�%����%�� �”���������%�%������������$”#�3$�”�!��#/$�*��$#��”&�”�������-�-�/���������!������/�������”���$����”��/��-��”���’&�%����$”#����������
EFGFH+I��+J4�5K4LF1MNO�IHKN
MNP1KHH�GMEF+�PJ4GFMHHKN)F

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 39

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

Creativity and Innovation: The Leadership Dynamics
EMMANUEL AGBOR

This paper explores the important role of leadership in the innovation process of organizations. It
argues that while culture, strategy, technology, and other management tools are important in
generating effectiveness in the 21st century, creativity and innovation are what drive
organizational success in many sectors. However, for creativity to take place, leaders must
actively implement strategies that encourage it. Therefore, leadership is the catalyst and source
of organizational creativity and innovation. In essence, for organizations to be able to achieve
constant innovation, leaders must establish an environment conducive to renewal and build
organizational culture that encourages creativity and innovation. Organizational creativity also
depends on how leaders encourage and manage diversity in the organization, as well as develop
an effective leadership structure that sustains the innovation process.

The models many organizations have used in the past no longer seem adequate for effectiveness
and success in the 21st-century organizational environment. The situation in their sector has
changed from when the environment and processes were stable or slow.1 In many sectors today,
work processes are changing at a much faster pace as organizations face the challenges of rapidly
changing technology, globalization, uncertainty, unpredictability, and turbulence.2 In the past,
because of monopoly to technology, market, or brand, they could expect to be successful for a
long time despite inability or refusal to innovate. However, due to the volatile environment in
these sectors, many such organizations are failing and need creativity and constant innovation to
remain competitive and successful. This means that they must recognize and harness the
creativity and leadership that exist in the organization to manage its innovation processes.
Strategic design, technology, culture, and organizational strategy may not be able to sustain them
very long unless organizations also establish a structure that continuously develops creative
leaders to run and sustain the process. This strategy will help the organizations establish
environments that are conducive to renewal, build organizational culture that encourages
innovations, and establish organizational diversity that in turn helps these organizations remain
competitive.

The Importance of Leaders in the Innovation Process
Scholars have shown how organizational structure, strategy, technology, culture, and other
management tools help bring effectiveness and competitive advantage to organizations.3 They
also show that in the 21st-century organizational environment, creativity and innovation are the
primary sources of competitive advantage. However, these authors say little about the role of
leadership in the innovative process. Creative and effective organizations do not emerge by
accident. They require leaders to drive and control deliberate changes in structure, culture, and
process in order to transform them into creative, effective, and productive ones. Even though
many organizations look for competitive advantage in their structure, strategy, technology, and
culture, leadership is the most important source of competitive advantage. Organizational leaders
usually decide what happens in the organization and give the direction, vision, and momentum
that bring success. Therefore, leaders are the catalyst that create and manage the environment,

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 40

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

organizational culture, and strategies that encourage and sustain innovation, effectiveness, and
success in the organization.

When the organization establishes its strategy and work processes, the leaders direct the
implementation that brings it to accomplishment. Technology, right culture, and strategy are
necessary and contribute to the success of the organization. However, for any of these vital
aspects to bring any real benefit, the leadership must support, sustain, encourage, and inspire
followers to make it work. Therefore, for the innovation process to begin in any organization,
that organization must first put the right leaders and leadership structure in place. Moreover, the
leaders must themselves be interested in innovation; otherwise, they can stifle creativity and
innovation in the organization. The top leaders in the organization usually have the power and
authority to develop strategies that lead to innovation, which means if they are unable to perceive
opportunity for renewal, do not wish to exploit them, or are unable to respond to them, these
leaders can impede innovation. Conversely, if the leaders’ objectives are dynamic, ambitious,
and innovative, and if they demonstrate proactive attitudes as well as a capacity to respond to
change, this can help bring innovation, renewal, and success to the organization.

Some management theorists argue that effective strategy, culture, efficient work processes, and
other management tools—not leadership—determine organizational success.4 For example, they
point to the Japanese auto industry and technology to show how their strong corporate culture
helped in their success. Moreover, empirical research demonstrates the importance of culture in
organizational performance.5 However, Schein has also shown that leaders are the ones who
develop the culture of the organizations.6 For example, when IBM had to change its culture in
order to renew the organization, it brought in a new CEO, Lou Gerstner. Similarly, it took Jack
Welch, a new CEO, to change the culture of General Electric to help it become highly innovative
and successful. Cameron and Quinn assert that culture change will not occur without the
involvement, commitment, and active support of leaders who repeatedly work to convince the
members of the organization of the benefits and need for an organizational culture change.7

Organizations with weak leadership tend to be less effective and are prone to constant
restructuring and downsizing in order to solve their problems. On the other hand, organizations
with creative and effective leaders work to avert the need for major restructuring and
downsizing. These leaders run the organization effectively and therefore prevent it from reaching
the stage of having to undertake major restructuring.8

The consulting firm CSC surveyed 497 firms in the U.S. and 1,245 firms in Europe that
undertook reengineering. Eighty-five percent reported little or no gain from their efforts.9
However, companies like Motorola, Compaq, and General Electric implemented successful
reengineering initiatives because they had creative and effective leaders to manage the process.10
Other companies have used Total Quality Management (TQM) initiatives or downsizing to
achieve efficiency. Many of these companies have likewise failed. Rath and Strong, a consulting
firm, surveyed Fortune 500 companies who had implemented TQM initiatives and found that
only 20% achieved their objectives. Likewise, a survey from the American Management
Association found that less than 45% of downsized companies in the last decade reported any
increase in profits.11 These statistics seem to show that many companies who have undertaken
reengineering initiatives have failed because of the lack of creative and effective leadership to
manage the process. This shows that management tools alone cannot ensure organizational

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 41

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

creativity that leads to innovation, effectiveness, and success. Organizations need creative and
effective leadership to help the management tools work.

Even though organizations cannot usually reach their goals without effective leadership, many
are lacking the kind of leadership that encourages creativity and produces success. According to
Senge and Deming, many of the problems and failures that face organizations come from lack of
creative leadership.12 Consequently, leadership is the fundamental and foundational competitive
advantage for success because without the right creative and effective leadership in
organizations, the strategy, technology, and innovations will not help it succeed. Organizations
need creative and effective leadership to manage the implementation of the strategy and
encourage innovation in the organization.

According to a study by Andersen Consulting, the stock price of companies perceived to have
creative leadership grew 900% over a 10-year period, compared with just 74% growth in
companies perceived to lack creative leadership. Therefore, the key to creative renewal in
organizations is their capacity to create a structure that develops new creative leaders to manage
the organization.13

The Type of Leadership that Encourages Innovation
The leadership structure of organizations help produce results that can encourage creativity and
innovation. However, not every kind of leadership model is effective in creating this opportunity.
Investments in certain kinds of leadership styles and models can produce results that generate
creativity. Successful organizations have discovered that shared and collaborative leadership,
rather than heroic and authoritarian management, is what unlocks the potential of
organizations.14 Organizations that operate from the authoritarian, hierarchical, command and
control model, where the top leaders control the work, information, decisions, and allocation of
resources, produce employees that are less empowered, less creative, and less productive.15 This
kind of model focuses on leadership as an extension of the top leader’s actions and will. This
heroic model of leadership was popular in the 19th century but continues even today in many
organizations.16 Organizations express the modern version of this leadership approach in
followers’ perceptions of leaders as those with all of the great ideas and who achieve great
successes in the organization single-handedly. In such organizations, the leaders occupy central
places and the followers believe these leaders are ultimately responsible for every outcome, as
well as ensuring that the organizational processes work smoothly.

This heroic approach to leadership has little chance of bringing innovation and renewal because
leaders do not single-handedly lead organizations to greatness. Rather, leadership involves many
individuals with various tools and skills who together transform the organization.17 The
alternative form of leadership is that it is not the ability of one person to take charge, but the
ability to inspire, empower, and exert broad influence in the organization. Contemporary leaders
know that no individual has all the ideas, the skills, and time to carry out the complex tasks of
contemporary leadership. They know that organizations will not survive if their leadership is
limited to the top leaders because leadership opportunities exist at every level of the
organization. Therefore, for an organization to become innovative and successful, it must benefit
from the creativity of all its members. Organizations can achieve this by harnessing all its
leadership abilities. Everyone in the organization in some way needs to be involved in its
leadership.18

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 42

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

According to Raelin, 21st-century organizations are knowledge-based and require that everyone
share the experience of serving as a leader; this means sharing power, responsibility, values and
aspirations, and working together to bring success to the organization.19 When this happens, the
organization gets rid of a suffocating dependence of the followers on the top leader, which
releases them to contribute their natural abilities to the organization. Tichy maintains that many
creative and successful organizations today depend on multiple sources of effective leadership at
all levels rather than maintaining a command-and-control leadership structure that often stifles
creativity.20 Therefore, the best way to build an innovative, vibrant, and effective organization is
to diffuse leadership and empower everyone through training and coaching so that they become
creative and effective leaders themselves.21

How Leaders Encourage Creativity and Innovation
For creativity and the spirit of innovation to develop in any organization, it must recognize the
role of the leaders in encouraging creativity. Leaders can successfully encourage organizational
creativity and innovation by designing the organization to foster an environment that is
conducive for creativity to flourish. Leaders can do this by building friendly and inclusive
working conditions for the members of the organization. When the social structure of the
organization helps workers feel secure and accepted, it brings out their creativity.22
Consequently, organizational leaders must respect, value, and harness the richness of ideas,
backgrounds, and perspectives of every employee and allow them to use their unique personal
assets and experiences to work for the organization.23

Moreover, the top leadership of the organization must value creativity themselves and be
enthusiastic about encouraging new developments. This provides the needed challenge and
opportunities for people in the organization to be creative.24 The vision and strategic goals of
leadership determine if the organization actively nurtures creativity. Hence, an exciting vision
helps produce a work environment where everyone can participate fully and achieve professional
and personal growth in the pursuit of a common vision. Here the leader motivates the rest of the
people in the organization to bring out their creativity through creating a shared vision of the
type of organization they should build. The leader inspires others with a purpose and a greater
sense of mission. This type of work environment is conducive to creativity, while this kind of
leadership causes changes in followers that eventually convert them into effective and creative
leaders.

Furthermore, leaders can be more effective in encouraging creativity by treating organizations as
living systems filled with the innovative dynamics and potential that exists in all of the people. It
is this creative potential that the leaders engage to tackle and solve organizational issues. In
essence, leaders must stop treating the people in the organization as machines, but rather as
living beings who work in organizations that are living systems. This worldview helps leaders
create organizations filled with followers who are capable of adapting, alert to changes in their
environment, and able to innovate purposefully.25 However, the only way leaders can harness
this innovative spirit is when they invite everyone to participate in solutions and in the creation
of the organizational processes. This means that the leaders must engage the whole system in
order to harness the intelligence and creativity that exists throughout the organization.

Additionally, leaders can help their organizations achieve creativity by stimulating it. They do
this by challenging and freeing employees to produce fresh solutions to problems. Leaders ask
questions that cause their followers to think freely. The stimulating leader creates challenges that

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 43

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

make work in the organization imaginative. This type of leadership loosens others up and
focuses their intelligence and creativity on addressing organizational issues and goals in new
ways. Frank Sonnenberg and Beverly Goldberg believe that the most difficult roadblock of
creativity to overcome is organizational culture that militates against creativity and innovation.26
This kind of culture fosters the belief that the way the organization functioned in the past is the
way it must always function. The motivations for such behavior are usually fear of failure,
organizational politics, and uneasiness with anything new or different. Creative leaders are able
to embrace change and to encourage followers to question why the organization does things in a
certain way, and then seek out alternative ways of doing things. These leaders treat mistakes as
part of the learning process and do not punish followers who try new ideas and fail. Therefore,
they help create organizational cultures where people can take risks and even make mistakes.

Diversity lies at the heart of an organization’s ability to innovate. Therefore, leaders must
actively encourage creativity and innovation through creating a more conducive environment for
diversity to thrive.27 The purpose of managing diversity by leaders is to harness the differences
of the followers for a more efficient functioning of the organization. This means that leaders
must design the social structures of the organization in such a way that all of the workers have a
sense of belonging. They make all members of the organization feel a sense of worth, security,
and acceptance that allows them to give much more of their talents and creativity to the
organization.28 This means that the organizational leader understands, values, and makes the
most of the individual differences found in every person.29 Many organizations have barriers that
prevent people from contributing all their skills, ideas, and energies to the organization’s
success.30 However, organizations will gain the full commitment and contribution of its entire
workforce when it recognizes and removes barriers to diversity. Where there is true diversity in
an organization, it becomes easier for innovative solutions to take place. According to Edwards,
the presence of dissimilar mindsets in the workforce enhances creativity, flexibility, problem
solving, and innovation.31 When people with diverse backgrounds and talents join an
organization, they tend to inject new ideas and challenge the organizational mindsets. However,
diversity does not happen overnight. Rather, the leaders of organizations first need to be
convinced of the benefits of diversity and in turn convince other members of the organization of
its benefit. When this occurs, they will put in place polices and strategies that bring about
diversity in the organization.

In essence, organizational leadership is the most important aspect of the organizational creativity
and innovation dynamics. No organization can transform or renew itself unless the leaders put
the process in motion and sustain it. Therefore, organizations need creative leaders to manage the
innovation process. Hence, the creativity of an organization depends on how the leader designs
the organization and creates the environment that allows creativity to develop. It can also depend
on how they encourage and manage diversity in the organization. Finally, it depends on how the
leader inspires everyone to bring out his or her best creative self and use that to help lead and
transform the organization.

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 44

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

Endnotes

                                                            

1 Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1997). Competing by design: The power of organizational architecture. New
York: Oxford University Press, 7-10.

 
2 Jamali, D., Khoury, G., & Sahyoun, H. (2006). From bureaucratic organizations to learning organizations: An

evolutionary roadmap. The Learning Organization, 13(4), 337-352. 
3 Galbraith, 2002; Nadler & Tushman, 1997.
4 Galbraith, 2002; Nadler & Tushman, 1997; Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing

organizational culture. Reading: Addison-Wesley. 
5 Cameron & Ettington, 1988; Denison, 1990; Trice & Beyer, 1993.
6 Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. Organizational dynamics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 
7 Cameron & Quinn. (1999).
 
8 Tichy, N. (1997). The leadership engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level. New York:

HarperCollins Publishers. 
9 Tichy. (1997).
10 Tichy, N. (1997).  
11 Tichy. (1997).

12 Senge & Deming, as cited in Tichy. (1997).
13 DuPont, B. D. (2002). Leadership–An organization’s biggest competitive advantage. University of Calgary

Enbridge Inc.
     
14 Askenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Kerr, S. (2002). The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of

organizational structure. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1-3.
 
15 Hornstein, H. A., & De Guerre, D. W. (2006). Bureaucratic organizations are bad for our health. Ivey Business

Journal Online, 1-4.
 
16 Harrison, B. (1999). The nature of leadership: Historical perspectives & the future. Journal of California Law

Enforcement, 33(1), 24-30. Retrieved on March 28, 2005, from ProQuest.
 
17 Spillane, J. P. (2005). Distributed leadership. The Educational Forum, 69(2), 143. Retrieved on March 29, 2005,

from ProQuest.
 
18 Bergmann, H., & Horst, D. (1999). Introducing a grass-roots mode of leadership. Strategies & Leadership, 27(6),

18-20. Retrieved March 28, 2005, from EBCOHost.  
19 Realin, J. (2003). The leaderful organization: How to bring out leadership in everyone. San Francisco: Berrett-

Koehler Publishers.

20 Tichy. (1997).

21 Gardner, J. W. (2000). The nature of leadership. In Educational Leadership: A Jossey-Bass Reader (pp. 1-12).

San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved on March 20, 2005.

JSL – Creativity and Innovation – Page 45

Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1 Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 39-45
© 2008 School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University
ISSN 1941-4668

                                                                                                                                                                                                

22 Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston, MA: Harvard Business
School.

 
23 Meurling, E. (2004). Diversity as a business opportunity. The PAUSE Scholarship Foundation.  
24 Kuhn, R. L. (1993). Generating creativity and innovation in large bureaucracies. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
25 Wheatley, M. (2001). Innovation means relying on everyone’s creativity. Leader to Leader, (Spring)

http://www.margaretwheatley.com/articles/innovationmeans.html.
 
26 Sonnenberg, F., & Goldberg, B. (1992). It’s a great idea, but… Training & Development, 46(3), 65–69. 
27 Wren. (1996).
28 Pfeffer. (1998).
29 Weinzimmer, L. G. (2001). Fast growth: How to attain it, how to sustain it. Chicago, IL: Dearborn Trade, A

Kaplan Professional Company. 
30 Edwards, S. (1996). The value in diversity. CA Magazine, 129(8), 16-21.
31 Edwards. (1996).

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

logo
N E W S L E T T E R S
S U B S C R I B E

logo

Best Workplaces
Awarding excellence in company culture

Early Rate Deadline: December 10, 2021

Apply Now

G R E E N B U S I N E S S

Here’s What Green Businesses Can Expect in the Wake of the Climate Summit

T E C H N O L O G Y

Businesses Are Increasingly Relying on Automation to Compensate for Labor Shortages

T A K I N G C A R E

The Secret to a Superb Customer Service Team? Hiring Actual Customers

n a v i g a t i o n
T O P S T O R I E S

T O P V I D E O S

N E W S L E T T E R S
S U B S C R I B E
n a v i g a t i o n

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

S E C U R I T Y

How to Protect Yourself from Ransomware Attacks, According to Cybersecurity Experts and Victims

T A K I N G C A R E

4 Strategic Partnerships That Paired Wildly Different Companies

S E C R E T W E A P O N

How to Navigate Emotions During Tough Negotiations, According to a Former FBI Negotiator

T A K I N G C A R E

Half of Small Businesses Are Facing Supply Shortages, but They Don’t Have to Wreck Christmas

logo

C U S T O M E R S E R V I C E

How to Build Personal Relationships With
Customers Companies in all industries and of all sizes
understand that customers are perhaps their most valuable
assets. Improving the overall customer experience is vital for
continued success and survival, and always has been. Here’s
how to manage those relationships.

B Y L O U D U B O I S
@ L O U _ D U B O I S

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

Customer loyalty and repeat business are the cornerstones of today’s market conditions. In the words of
many industry professionals, losing a customer is the absolute worst thing that could happen to your company.
This mantra has always stood true, but when you’re fighting with competitors for every dollar, customer
retention is key.

According to the American Express Global Customer Service Barometer released July 7, 61% of 1,000 American
consumers surveyed think good customer service is more important amid economic instability and are willing to spend an
average of 9% more at a retailer that provides it. Some additional numbers from the survey are that 81% of American
Express respondents are more likely to give a retailer repeat business after receiving good customer service, while 75% say
such measures will make them spread the word about a company that treated them well.

As Charles Green puts it in How to Build a Culture of Corporate Trust, ‘most sales models are inherently transactional. But
if you start thinking about your customers in terms of relationships rather than transactions, where it’s never about one
deal, you’ll build relationships.’ This guide will explain what customer relationship management is and the principals you
should follow for better relationships with your customers.

How To Build Personal Relationships with Customers: What Is CRM?

So while everyone seemingly understands the importance of customer relationships, they have come a long way in a short
time. In the 1990s many academics and industry gurus spent time popularizing theoretical visions of how strategically
managing customers would improve relationships, then in turn sales, loyalty and profits. What that led to was a boom in
technology software aimed at managing and measuring CRM (or Customer Relationship Management).

But what exactly is CRM? According to the experts at CRM Magazine, ‘it is a company-wide business strategy designed to
reduce costs and increase profitability by solidifying customer satisfaction, loyalty, and advocacy. True CRM brings

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

together information from all data sources within an organization (and where appropriate, from outside the organization) to
give one, holistic view of each customer in real time. This allows customer-facing employees in such areas as sales,
customer support, and marketing to make quick yet informed decisions on everything from cross-selling and upselling
opportunities to target marketing strategies to competitive positioning tactics.’

In fact, CRM users, vendors, analysts and consultants from around the world descended upon New York City last week for
a three-day conference called CRM Evolution which featured panels, seminars and discussions on how technologies and
economic forces are changing the industry.

‘If you don’t have any kind of relationship with a customer, they’re simply not going to be a customer,’ says Brent Leary, a
columnist for Inc. Technology and the co-founder and partner of CRM Solutions, LLC., based in Stockbridge, Georgia. ‘If
we can build a relationship where they know who we are, they like what we can do, and give an example of how we can
help them, then we can give them the trust and that helps solidify relationships.’

Dig Deeper: How to Choose CRM Software

How To Build Personal Relationships with Customers: Defining Your Strategy and Implementation

But once a business recognizes the need, how can they implement strategies to improve customer relationships? It is
actually considerably easier than many may think. First and foremost, it’s about your talent. If you understand your
employees and get the right people involved in relationship management, you’ll be at a benefit right away. But you should
also be collaborative with the customers to see what they want and whom they want to work with. Remember, it’s a two-
sided relationship.

‘Focus on people, process and technology,’ says Esteban Kolsky, a noted blogger and the Principal and Founder of
Thinkjar, an advisory firm focused on Customer Strategies. ‘With technology, the software you adopt will differ based
upon what type of company you are, your employees, and much more. But there is so much available now that every
company should be able to find a CRM solution that fits them individually.’ With that said, here are some core principles
to relationship management that any company can, and should follow:

1. Communication: Listening is just as important as telling. Think about how often you actually speak with your
customers. Then evaluate, am I only calling when we need to make a sale or close a deal? Focus on less financial-driven
communication (whether it’s email, phone or face-to-face interaction is up to you). Do you have a newsletter or a new tool
you’re testing out? If you make your customers feel involved, they feel as though they actually have a stake in your
company, and feel like you care about more than just getting the sale.

2. Rewards: Every industry has companies who do reward and customer loyalty programs differently. It is a very simple
form of saying ‘thank you.’ And particularly of late, loyalty programs seem only to have grown in popularity. Why?
Customer loyalty programs are the next-generation marketing strategy. It is a viable and measurable marketing tool that
small businesses can use to retain their customers and grow their business. It’s all about recognizing and understanding
your customers (and each one is unique, so learn about each of them separately). Once you do that, you can gear a loyalty
program around their habits, likes and dislikes (think about the way LBS services like Foursquare, GoWalla and others are
implementing rewards strategies).

3. Enhanced Customer Service: This rule goes without saying, but as Ray Wang, a partner at Altimeter Group in San
Mateo, California, put it best at CRM Evolution, ‘Customers no longer care about what department you’re in, they simply
want their problem fixed.’ With social CRM channels like Twitter replacing traditional call centers, it’s imperative that
everyone in your company buy into a singular customer service strategy. As the earlier cited American Express survey
notes, good customer service can be the determining factor in repeat business. So why wouldn’t you focus extra attention
on it?

4. Start Small and Emphasize Human Touch: Everyone remembers the theme song to the ever-popular television
series Cheers. Well it’s very true, as getting to know the names and faces of regular customers shows that you care.

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

Additionally, as a small business, make the extra effort to emphasize face-to-face interaction as opposed to phone or email.

5. Be Flexible: Be quick and attentive to a customer’s problems or complaints. In the past, some companies would
simply say, ‘I’m sorry, it’s policy’ in response to a customer complaint. That answer doesn’t really work anymore, as
customers are savvy enough to take their business elsewhere if they’re not getting the service and attention they want. You
should set aside some strategic ideas for dealing with an unhappy customer, but you shouldn’t waver far from the old
mantra that the customer is always right.

Dig Deeper: How to Use Customer Relationship Management Software

Inc. helps entrepreneurs change the world. Get the advice you need to start, grow, and lead your business today. Subscribe here for
unlimited access.
Aug 4, 2010

N E W S L E T T E R

logo

Inc. This
Morning
A daily news digest curated for those interested in entrepreneurship

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-with-customers.html[11/17/2021 1:22:27 PM]

Sign Up

S P O N S O R E D B U S I N E S S C O N T E N T

P R I V A C Y P O L I C Y

N O T I C E O F C O L L E C T I O N

D O N O T S E L L M Y D A T A

A D V E N D O R P O L I C Y

T E R M S O F U S E

A D V E R T I S E

H E L P C E N T E R

S I T E M A P

C O P Y R I G H T 2 0 2 1 M A N S U E T O V E N T U R E S

  • inc.com
    • How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers | Inc.com
  1. 13aXRoLWN1c3RvbWVycy5odG1sAA==:
    1. button0:
    2. button0_(1):
  2. 13aXRoLWN1c3RvbWVycy5odG1sAA==:
    1. form2:
      1. input0: Type your email
      2. button4:

���������������
���
����������������������
������������������������

�������� !������������!”���
���”����#�$�% ���

&�'()*�+,�-./01�2/0034�530(+/,6*7/8*�’/+79.*+,:34*;<=�>[email protected]�@AB=�CD�[email protected]=H�I?�J�[email protected][email protected]=HKLA�MIN=�OJBB=P� QJRFJHA�STU�VWSXYZ[[]̂�_̀Za_̂_̂b�cd�efa_Za__ga�h]fa[cgf]â�ia_�fj_[a�]klm?�J�?=HIJP�[email protected]=BH=R=FHU�n�NRCo�[email protected]<JRp�<Co�[email protected]@�[email protected]�I?�@C�[email protected][email protected]<�[email protected]=H?KLFIPpIRq�[email protected]?<IB?�I?�N=A�@C�P=JHRIRq�ACFH�[email protected]=H?r�R==p?K�mRpU�ACF�GJA�qJIR�[email protected][email protected]=H?U�H=D=HHJP?�JRp�stu�vswxyt�IR�@<=�BHCE=??K
?<[email protected]@[email protected]?�J�?GJPP�>F?IR=??�CoR=HU�ACF�<Jz=�JR�[email protected]=�o<=R�[email protected]�ECG=?�@C�>FIPpIRq�[email protected][email protected]�;<=�?I{=�CD�ACFH�ECGBJRA�JPPCo?�ACF�@C�H=JE<�B=CBP=�[email protected]�J�GCH=�B=H?CRJP�[email protected]<JR�>Iq�>F?IR=??=?U�o<IE<�@FHR?�[email protected][email protected]=H�[email protected]?<IB?�[email protected]<�[email protected]=H?K|t}~ut���|t}~uvxs��v�����t�����tsw�

���������������
���
����������������������
������������������������

�������� !������������!”���
���”����#�$�% ���

&’�()*+,*�(-.,’/*)�)*0+,1’2.314.5�+26�7**4�,3*/�.,)’285�9′-�/-.,�6’�+00�9′-�(+2�,’*28+8*�(-.,’/*).:�;*)*�+)*�<1=*�>+9.�,’�?-106�(-.,’/*)�)*0+,1’2.314.�+26�7**4�,3*/(‘/128�?+(7:@A�BCDDEFGHIJKAL.�+�7*9�,’�+29�8”6�)*0+,1’2.3145�(‘//-21(+,1’2�1.�+2�*..*2,1+0�>+9�,’�?-106�(-.,’/*))*0+,1’2.314.:�M)’/’,128�9′-)�?-.12*..�+26�01.,*2128�,’�9′-)�(-.,’/*).�+)*�*N-+0091/4′),+2,:

���������������
���
����������������������
������������������������

�������� !������������!”���
���”����#�$�% $��

&'()*+�()’,�-./(�(*001,2�3./(45*+/�’64.(�74.+�6./1,*//8�)’9*�34,9*+/'(14,/�:1()�()*5;�<1,=4.(�:)'(�74.+�3./(45*+/�,**=8�()*,�/)4:�()*5�()'(�74.�)’9*�’�/40.(14,�(4�()*1+�>+460*5;[email protected]�74.�)’9*�*5>047**/8�(*’3)�()*5�)4:�(4�*@@*3(19*07�3455.,13′(*�:1()�3./(45*+/;?,/(*’=�[email protected]�:’1(1,2�@4+�3./(45*+�/*+913*�(4�6*345*�’�>+460*58�@4/(*+�3455.,13′(14,�/A100/:1()�3./(45*+/�:)10*�BCDBEFGHCI�CJK�JLMNBOJJP;�Q’1,(‘1,�’,�*5>047**�>401378�+*R.1+1,2(15*07�@4004:S.>8�(4�5’A*�/.+*�()*�3./(45*+T/�,**=/�’+*�5*(;�Q’A*�/.+*�74.+�/(‘@@�+*(.+,/9413*5’10�5*//’2*/�’,=�*5’10/�>+45>(07;UV�WXYZZ[�ZXZY]̂]_̀abVc4.+�3./(45*+/�*d>*3(�2+*'(�>+4=.3(/�4+�/*+913*/�@+45�74.;�c4.�/)4.0=�34,(1,.*�(4�+’1/*()*�6’+�4,�:)'(�74.+�345>’,7�[email protected]@*+/;e4�>.(�1(�/15>078�.,=*+�>+451/*8�’,=�49*+�=*019*+;�f)*,�74.�15>+*//�3./(45*+/8�()*7�A**>3451,2�6’3A;
e4�*d3**=�3./(45*+�*d>*3(‘(14,/8�74.�3′,�=*019*+�’�>+4=.3(�4+�/*+913*�@’/(*+�()’,’,(131>'(*=;�f)*,�74.�=*019*+�*’+01*+�()’,�*d>*3(*=8�()*�3./(45*+�:100�6*�)’>>7�’64.(�()*/.+>+1/*;�<4+�*d’5>0*8�(*00�’�3./(45*+�()*1+�4+=*+�:100�6*�+*’=7�67�()*�*,=�[email protected]�()*�54,()8A,4:1,2�74.�:100�)’9*�1(�+*’=7�’�:**A�*’+01*+;gV�hbi�j̀k�jZZ[l̂YiV

���������������
���
����������������������
������������������������

�������� !������������!”���
���”����#�$�% %��

&'()'(*�+,-)./(*-�’01(�0�2..3�.*�403�.5676.7�04.,)�8.,*�4,-67(–9�)'(8�:6;;�/0<(�)'(6*=((;672-�<7.:7>�?716)(�+,-)./(*�=((340+<�).�-‘.:�8.,�0*(�;6-)(7672>�@;0+(�+.//(7)�+0*3-.7�8.,*�4,-67(–�+.,7)(*9�.*�+.73,+)�0�-,*1(8>A,-)./(*�=((340+<�'(;5-�8.,�’.7(�8.,*�+,-)./(*-B�-5(+6=6+�7((3-�-.�8.,�+07�=673�)'(�4(-)-.;,)6.7-�).�)'(6*�5*.4;(/->�C'(�4())(*�8.,*�.==(*672�/(()-�)'(6*�7((3-9�)'(�/.*(�8.,*4,-67(–�:6;;�2*.:>D;:08-�;6-)(7�+0*(=,;;8�).�+.//(7)-�073�*(-5.73�5*./5);89�:'()'(*�6)B-�0�+./5;6/(7)�.*�0+./5;067)>�C'(�:.*-)�)’672�8.,�+07�3.�6-�0-<�=.*�=((340+<�)'(7�7.)�033*(–�+.7+(*7->�E1(77(20)61(�=((340+<�6-�10;,04;(�073�+07�261(�8.,�07�’.7(-)�20,2(�.=�+,-)./(*�-0)6-=0+)6.7>
FGHIJGKL�M�NGJOPQRSTU�VHWTKGQX�YZIJ�[TKGQSTG�]PWQ�FĜWJIJSPT_̀�abccdef̀&6)’�)(+’7.;.289�)'(*(�0*(�/.*(�:08-�).�4(267�+.71(*-0)6.7-�:6)’�8.,*�+,-)./(*-�)’07(1(*�4(=.*(>�C'(*(�0*(�/078�.7;67(�)..;-�073�-.+60;�/(360�.,);()-�8.,�+07�,-(�).�*(0+’+,-)./(*->&'(7�8.,�(7202(�:6)’�+,-)./(*-�.7;67(9�4(�+0*(=,;�TPJ�JP�gQGIJG�I�PTGhOIigPTjGQXIJSPT>�D-<�+,-)./(*-�k,(-)6.7-9�073�*(-5.73�).�)'(6*�67k,6*6(->D;-.9�/0<(�-,*(�8.,*�:(4-6)(�6-�).5l7.)+’9�073�-)0*)�0�4;.2�).�(7202(�8.,*�+,-)./(*-�0735*.-5(+)->�m,6;3�+,-)./(*�*(;0)6.7-’65-�)’*.,2’�8.,*�.7;67(�5*(-(7+(>ǹ�opbq�rsstdeurfubc̀

���������������
���
����������������������
������������������������

�������� !������������!”���
���”����#�$�% ���

&'()*+�,-./0123’�4561-3’*6�(217�)�,-8),18�+264-5.1�9*-/*)3:�;-5�4).�7).+�-51�*'()*+4)*+6<�-*�56’�)�,-8),18�9*-/*)3�)99�1-�1*)4=�4561-3’*�*'()*+6:>217�)�,-8),18�9*-/*)3<�4561-3’*6�’)*.�9-2.16�?-*�@582./�8-5*�/–+6�-*�6’*A24’6:�B?1’*’)*.2./�)�4’*1)2.�[email protected]‘*�-?�9-2.16<�17’�4561-3’*�/’16�)�*'()*+:�C-*�’D)39,'<�8-5�4-5,+*'()*+�)�4561-3’*�(217�)�+264-5.1�-.�17’2*�.’D1�95*47)6′:
EFGHIFJK�LMNOI�OPIMQ�RFISMTUVNWXO�YZ[I�PIHTI�LMVNW�I�EVW]IB,6-�/2A’�)()8�2.’D9′.62A’�@*).+’+�21’36<�6547�)6�9′.6�-*�.-1’9)+6<�-*�’A’.�’D9′.62A’21’36<�,2=’�672*16<�7)16�-*�̂)4=’16�(217�8-5*�,-/-�-.�21:�_1̀6�)�63),,�8’1�’??’412A’�()8�1-�6)817).=�8-5�1-�4561-3’*6�(72,’�=”92./�8-5*�@562.’66�1-90-?032.+:abcddef�ghijkl�mnoolpq.1*’9*’.’5*�r’)+’*6729�s’1(-*=�>*21’*t2=’�u)99′,�26�)�6’*2),�’.1*’9*’.’5*<�).+�17’�?-5.+’*�).+�vqw�-?�x)1*2-1y-?1()*’�v-39).8<�).+�216�[email protected]+2)*2’6:��x)1*2-1�y-?1()*'<�rrv�26�)�+’A’,-9’*�-?�-.,2.’9)8*-,,�).+�)44-5.12./�6-?1()*’�?-*�z:y:�63),,[email protected]’66�-(.’*6:

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� ��&

‘()�*+,-.�/0.1�2’/1�3456784’6
9�:;<=>[email protected]>;<=�D;A�EF>G?><H�=CA;<H><[email protected]<BC>;<BG�EF=><@==�[email protected]>;<=I>J=KLMNOMONK9 PQRS-
T-0RU.+VWQ.XW�RS-�R00�RY+,U�Z.[-�RV�UR]-̂/�_RVRZ-S�RU�4’2�+V̀-�U+0�_-�U+�UQ.V]�+a�S-0RU.+VWQ.XW�RW�YRV]�R̀ +̀,VUŴ�b+,�_,WU�-X+W.U�.VU+UQ-_�cdefgd�(+,�̀RV�_R]-�R�h.UQSRhR0̂�5Q.W�Q+0W�US,-�V+U�+V0(�.V�Y,W.V-WW1�Y,U�R0W+�.V�RV(S-0RU.+VWQ.X̂PUS+VZ�S-0RU.+VWQ.XW�RS-�[-S(�._X+SURVU�.V�Y,W.V-WŴ5Q.W�.W�-WX-̀.R00(�US,-�.V�.VU-SVRU.+VR0�Y,W.V-WW1�hQ-S-�UQ-S-�V–W�U+�Y-�W+�_,̀Q�US,WU�RV\-X-VRY.0.U(�Y-̀R,W-�Y.Z�UQ.VZW�RS-�QRXX-V.VZ�R̀S+WW�0RSZ-�.WURV̀-Ŵ

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� ��&

‘()*+,-*�)*.�/+,012)3+04�,5+0�6*37*�8.(2)3+04*354�28.�9,3()�28.�43:3(28�/+8�1+:.4)37�20130).802)3+02(�:28;.)4<�9,3(130-�8.(2)3+04*354�30).802)3+02((=�7+:.4�63)*�3)4�+60�7*2((.0-.4>?+:.4)372((=<�@�720�,4,2((=�183A.�:=�728�201�-+�/+8�2�/27.B)+B/27.�:..)30->�@�1+0C)�8.2((=�*2A.�)*34(,D,8=�6*.0�6+8;30-�30).802)3+02((=>E.C8.�)*20;/,(�/+8�).7*0+(+-3.4�)*2)�.029(.�,4�)+7+0)30,.�F,2(3)=�(+0-B134)207.�7+::,0372)3+04�A32:.13,:4�(3;.�G;=5.<�9,)�3)C4�3:5+8)20)�)+�.04,8.)*.�134)207.�1+.40C)�58.A.0)�=+,�/8+:�1+30-�-++19,430.44>H+,8�27)3+04�63((�0..1�)+�45.2;�(+,1.8�)*20�=+,8�6+814>I*.�/+((+630-�/3A.�7+0431.82)3+04�63((�*.(5�=+,�9,3(1�4)8+0-�30).802)3+02(�9,430.44�8.(2)3+04*35463)*�=+,8�-(+92(�528)0.84�4+�=+,�720�:230)230�2�*.2()*=�201�6.((B1.5+43).1�J920;�277+,0)C>KL�MNOPQ�NR�SPTUVTRW�OXYVTSTUTZ[�TZ]�[NPX�WUNŜUSPQTRYQQ�_̂XZRYXQH+,C8.�78.139(.�3/�=+,C8.�*+0.4)<�)8204528.0)�201�).((�3)�(3;.�3)�34>�I*34�F,2(3)=�63((�02),82((=�:2;.3)4�62=�)+�)*.�58+1,7)4�=+,�8.58.4.0)>@�+07.�*21�20�344,.�63)*�2�7*.25�3:3)2)3+0�+/�+0.�+/�)*.�982014�@�8.58.4.0)>�I*.�1.2(�624�2(:+4)4.2(.1�63)*�)*.�134)839,)+8<�9,)�6.�6.8.�*3)�63)*�)*.�0.64�)*2)�2�;0+7;B+//�58+1,7)�/8+:�̀*302)*2)�7(23:.1�)+�1+�6*2)�+,8�58+1,7)�1+.4�624�2(8.21=�+0�:28;.)�4*.(A.4�/+8�2�/827)3+0�+/�+,85837.>I*34�0.64�0.-2)3A.(=�2//.7).1�+,8�134)839,)+8C4�63((30-0.44�)+�7+0)30,.�0.-+)32)3+04�63)*�,4<�201)*.�1.2(�0.A.8�:2).832(3a.1>b,8�30).0)3+0�624�0.A.8�)+�*31.�20=�30/+8:2)3+0c�6.�d,4)�1310C)�;0+6>�I*34�2(4+�45.2;4�)+�)*.3:5+8)207.�+/�58+5.8�8.4.287*�+0�)*.�/+8.3-0�:28;.)�30�6*37*�=+,C8.�30).8.4).1>’4�2�7+88.7)3A.�27)3+0<�201�)+�:230)230�+,8�78.1393(3)=<�6.�:+13/3.1�2((�+,8�58+5+42(4�)+�307(,1.)*.�02:.4�+/�4,7*�;0+7;B+//4>�E.�2(4+�0+6�+//.8�-,31207.�+0�)*.�13//.8.0)32)30-�/27)+84�201�)*.9.0./3)4�+/�8.58.4.0)30-�+0(=�+83-302(�58+1,7)4>

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� &�’

()�*+,�,-+�./0-,�+12+3,4,/567�75�859�346�4:;487<5::5;=,-.590->[email protected]?AB�CDEFG�DH�IJFK�FLMFNHOHD?KG�OPFKQH�RFHSTJFHJFP�DHQG�O�AFOACDKF�?P�O�MP?AUNH�GMFNDVDNOHD?KWA?KQH�OGGURF�HJFPFQG�UKAFPGHOKADKXY�FKGUPF�HJOHFZFPB?KFQG�?K�HJF�GORF�MOXFS[�JOA�O�GDHUOHD?K�?KNF�IDHJ�HJF�ADGMCOB�@?LFG�HJOH�IF�GJDM�IDHJ�?UP�MP?AUNHGS�JFBQPF�IJDHF�DKN?C?PS�TJB]�̂FNOUGF�HJFBQPF�HOPXFHFA�V?P�HJF�DKHFPKOHD?KOC�ROPEFHW�IJDNJ�N?RFG�IDHJ�ADVVFPFKHCOKXUOXFG�OKA�HOGHFGS�_�@COKE�NOKZOG�[email protected]�HJF�[email protected]?PG�H?�OAA�HJFDP�?IK�KORFW�C?X?�OKA�HJFCOKXUOXF�R?GH�GUDHFA�V?P�HJFDP�C?NOC�ROPEFHS?̀IFZFPW�OH�HJF�HDRF�?UP�[email protected]�VFOHUPFA�O�ADGMCOB�@?L�HJOH�IOGKQH�IJDHFS�[H�IOG�?KF�?V�HJFADGMCOB�@?LFG�UGFA�OG�O�GORMCFW�OKA�DH�IOG�MPDKHFA�IDHJ�XPOMJDNG�OKA�KORFGS�JF�[email protected]?POGGURFA�HJOH�HJF�@?L�CDGHFA�?K�HJF�[email protected]�DG�IJOH�HJFBQA�PFNFDZFW�@UH�H?�HJFDP�GUPMPDGF�IJFK�HJFBPFNFDZFA�DHW�DH�IOGKQHSTF�VDLFA�HJF�GDHUOHD?K��@B�GFKADKX�HJFR�JDXJabUOCDHB�M?GHFPG�H?�UGFW�OKA�VUHUPF�GJDMRFKHG�IFPF�K?C?KXFP�OK�DGGUFS�̀?IFZFPW�HJDG�CFA�UG�H?�A?�O�N?RMCFHF�PFZDFI�?V�OCC�?UP�ROHFPDOCG�H?�FKGUPF�IFOCIOBG�GFH�MP?MFP�FLMFNHOHD?KG�OKA�V?CC?I�HJP?UXJ�IDHJ�HJFRS

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� &�’

()*�+*,+,-./-�0,1�203/)45�675�17265�42-+/.8�9,:5-;�.04�15�3/5.*/8�-6.65�675�.4454�9505<26�<,*)-20=�67.6�3,/,)*>?5.*0�<*,@�5A5*8�6*.0-.362,0�.04�)-5�17.6�8,)�/5.*0�6,�+5*<536�675�05:6�,05>BC�DEFGHI�GJ�KJLM�NOJPQO�RLFGJSHMF�QIT�QTQUGKJLM�JVVHMEINF�QRRJMTEINOKWA5*8,05�.04�5A5*8�9)-205–�7.-�6752*�@,62A.62,0-�<,*�9520=�20�*5/.62,0-72+->?2-650�6,�8,)*�=/,9./�+.*605*-�.04�/5.*0�6752*�=,./-.04�17.6�@,62A.65-�[email protected]>�W0-)*5�67.6�8,)�./2=08,)*�,<<5*20=-�1267�6752*�=,./->X72-�2-�.�[email protected]+/5�-./5-�3,035+6;�9)6�8,)�7.A5�6,�95�.9/5�6,�.0-15*�6752*�Y)5-62,0;�Z[7.6-�20�26�<,*@5]̂_,*�)-�.6�̀.0.4.�X,++;�/2-65020=�.04�.4.+620=�,)*�,<<5*20=-�*5-)/654�20�*545-2=054�+.3a.=5-�126742<<5*506�3,/,*-�.04�/.0=).=5->[5�@,42<254�[email protected]=5-;�20-6*)362,0-�.04�/5.</56�-2b5->�c.08�3)-6,@5*-�15*5�./-,�0,6�*5.420=�67520-6*)362,0-;�-,�15�3*5.654�<)0�A245,-�17237�15*5�5.-25*�6,�<,//,1>[5�+)6�.//�20-6*)362,0-�,0�159-265-�20�42<<5*506�/.0=).=5-�-,�6758�3.0�95�*5.4�,0/205�5.-2/8�A2.3,@+)65*�,*�[email protected]*6�+7,05>d,06�@.a5�675�@2-6.a5�,<�5:+53620=�67.6�17.6-�1,*a20=�<,*�8,)�.6�7,@5�3.0�95�<,*354�,06,�.<,*52=0�@.*a56>�?2-650�.04�.4.+6>?2-650�6,�8,)*�+.*605*-�+*5<5**54�3,@@)023.62,0�-68/5�6,,>�e<�8,)*5�0,6�=56620=�+*,@+6�*5+/25-�6,8,)*�[email protected]/-;�6758�@.8�+*5<5*�6./a20=�,A5*�675�+7,05>�e�)-).//8�/2a5�6,�.-a�17.6�1,*a-�<,*�[email protected]>(05�,<�675�42-6*29)6,*-�e�1,*a�1267�+*5<5*-�65:6�37.6620=�,A5*�fa8+5>�e6�1,*a-�<,*�[email protected];�.04�[email protected]=54�6,�.4.+6�6,�72-�-68/5>�g-�.�*5-)/6;�15�7.A5�.�@,*5�-)335–<)/�*5/.62,0-72+>hC�ijQMH�QIK�kIJlOHTNH�GjQG�lEOO�jHOU�KJLMUQMGIHMFjEUF�FLRRHHT

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� ��&

‘()*+,-.,�/0�1)*,2345,�6)2,�7)8�,98/1�7)82�-/0:2/;8:)20�*/:5<()*+,-.,=�:5,�6)2,�>)(?/(>,-�:5,[email protected]++�;,�:)>)(:/(8,�*)2</(.�*/:5�7)8345/0�1)/(:�,0>A1,0�0)6,�>)61A(/,0345,2,�)8.5:�:)�;,�:*)�:71,0�)B�05A2,-�<()*+,-.,C�D(,�:5A:@0�2,+,?A(:�:)�:5,�-/0:2/;8:)2=�A(-A():5,2�*5/>5�/0�2,+,?A(:�:)�:5,�>80:)6,23�45,�-/0:2/;8:)2�(,,-0�:)�+,A2(�;):5�0)�:5,7�>A(�28(�:5,/2;80/(,00�0/-,�A(-�A+0)�+,A2(�5)*�:)�1)0/:/)(�:5,�12)-8>:�/(�:5,�6A2<,:3E:�FA(A-A�4)11=�*,@?,�-,?,+)1,-�:*)�0,:0�)B�/(B)26A:/)(�B)2�,?,27�;2A(-�*,�2,12,0,(:3G,�A+0)�)BB,2�)82�-/0:2/;8:)20�A>>,00�:)�A�-A:A;A0,�*5/>5�5)80,0�A�+):�)B�2,0)82>,0�:5,7�>A(�80,�:)12)6):,�:5,�12)-8>:03�G,�808A++7�A/6�:)�2,>28/:�-/0:2/;8:)20�*5)@?,�;,,(�/(�;80/(,00�B)2�A:�+,A0:0,?,(�7,A20�*/:5�<()*+,-.,�)B�:5,�/(-80:27�0)�*,�6/(/6/H,�:5,�+,A2(/(.�>82?,=�A(-�*,�;,(,B/:B2)6�:5,/2�,I/0:/(.�,I1,2/,(>,3′,,1�-/0:2/;8:)20�/(B)26,-�*/:5�A++�2,+,?A(:�81-A:,0�)(�7)82�12)-8>:0�0)�:5,[email protected],�A+*A706):/?A:,-�:)�*)2<�*/:5�7)83JK�LM�NOPQR�SOTU�MO�VWXYRMZ�[OX�Y]̂S]U_�̂OU_̀MQXP�]UMQXUaM]OUâ�YR]UQRR�XQ̂aM]OURb]cR4280:�/0�:5,�2,08+:�)B�;,5A?/(.�>2,-/;+7=�0,::/(.�:5,�2/.5:�,I1,>:A:/)(0=�+/0:,(/(.�A(-�A-A1:/(.=�A(-05A2/(.�<()*+,-.,34280:�+,A-0�:)�08>>,00B8+�;80/(,00�:2A(0A>:/)(0*5/>5�A2,�2,1,A:,-�B)2�6A(7�7,A203�d:@0�:5,B)8(-A:/)(�B)2�+)(.=�+A0:/(.�A(-�B28/:B8+2,+A:/)(05/103

���������������
���
���������
����
��������������
������������
�������������������
�������������������

!!!”��������� “#���$�����������%��!� ����#
���������
���������������
������������
�������������������
������� &�&

‘()*+,-�./0,�-.123�(./(�+(�41-(-�-,0,3�(+5,-�/-�5)4.�(1�/46)+7,�/�3,2�4)-(15,7�/-�+(�*1,-�(1�8,,9/3�,:+-(+3;�13,<�=+(.�(7)-(>�?1)@7,�8,,9+3;�(.,�,:+-(+3;�13,-<�A3*�,/4.�1B�(.,5�2+CC�;,(�?1)�(.7,,517,DE.,�6),-(+13�+-F�G/3�?1)�/BB17*�HIJ�(1�5/8,�/�-,7+1)-�,BB17(�(1�K)+C*�7,C/(+13-.+9-LMNOPQR�STUV�WXRP�OYZ[X�]TV�YXZX̂T_[̀a�RPVT̀a�[̀PXV̀OP[T̀Ô�WUR[̀XRR�VX̂OP[T̀RN[_Rb�cdefghdijkl�mnj�IodHdIHe�jpokjeejq�dH�Jnde�hkJdfgj�hkj�JnIej�Ir�Jnj�fIHJkdstJdHu�htJnIkv�hHq�qIHIJ�Hjfjeehkdgw�kjrgjfJ�JnIej�Ir�Jnj�xIkti�rIk�yHJjkHhJdIHhg�mkhqj�mkhdHdHuz{WTUP�PNX�OUPNTV
|TUX[�{̂[}�~�{}�����������1),+�+-�(.,��+7,4(17�1B��)-+3,–��,0,C195,3(�/(�G/3/*/�E199��71)9�K/-,*�+3��13*13��3(/7+1�G/3/*/�<�G/3/*/�E199��71)9�+-�/3�,:917(�(7/*+3;�4159/3?�(./(�.,C9-�G/3/*+/3�4159/3+,-�2+(.19917()3+(+,-�/3*�K)-+3,–�*,0,C195,3(�+3�10,7����41)3(7+,-�K?�/4(+3;�/-�(.,+7�,:917(�/75�(17,/4.�/�2,CC�,-(/KC+-.,*�4155)3+(?�1B�6)/C+B+,*�*+-(7+K)(17-<

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

N E W S L E T T E R S S U B S C R I B E n a v i g a t i o n

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

logo
N E W S L E T T E R S S U B S C R I B E

logo
Best Workplaces
Awarding excellence in company culture
Early Rate Deadline: December 10, 2021
Apply Now
G R E E N B U S I N E S S

Here’s What Green Businesses Can Expect in the Wake of the Climate Summit
T E C H N O L O G Y

Businesses Are Increasingly Relying on Automation to Compensate for Labor Shortages
S P O N S O R E D C O N T E N T

How This Black Woman Investor Is Empowering Underestimated Founders

T A K I N G C A R E

The Secret to a Superb Customer Service Team? Hiring Actual Customers
S E C U R I T Y

How to Protect Yourself from Ransomware Attacks, According to Cybersecurity Experts and Victims
T A K I N G C A R E

4 Strategic Partnerships That Paired Wildly Different Companies
S E C R E T W E A P O N

How to Navigate Emotions During Tough Negotiations, According to a Former FBI Negotiator
T A K I N G C A R E

Half of Small Businesses Are Facing Supply Shortages, but They Don’t Have to Wreck Christmas

logo

S T A R T U P

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You
Need to Succeed in Business

n a v i g a t i o n

T O P S T O R I E S T O P V I D E O S

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

Some people who believe they were born to build a business only
focus on the product. Here is how to add the required relationship
talent

B Y M A R T I N Z W I L L I N G , F O U N D E R A N D C E O , S T A R T U P P R O F E S S I O N A L S @ S T A R T U P P R O

Getty Images

Unfortunately, people who are great at inventing things, and have high creativity, often don’t have strong interpersonal skills
or interests.
As a mentor to aspiring entrepreneurs, I see a high level of frustration from people in this category who have personally
developed great solutions, but can’t make them into a business. They don’t realize that running a business requires
relationships.

I strongly believe the talent to effectively build relationships can be learned, just like any other skill, even if you are an introvert like me.
It does take effort and focus, just like learning other skills that you need to achieve objectives you have set.
In business, you need to build relationships with a wide range of people, including investors, peers, employees, and of course customers.
Article continues after sponsored content
Your Next Move S P O N S O R E D C O N T E N T
How This Black Woman Investor Is Empowering Underestimated Founders
As part of my own efforts to maximize my relationship efforts, I found some concise business-oriented guidance in a new book, Born to
Build, by Jim Clifton and Sangeeta Badal, Ph.D.
These executives from Gallup bring together their best data from business professionals around the world, to offer the following
strategies for stepping our relationship results up a notch:
1. Build new relationships by diversifying your networks.
Force yourself to go beyond people in your immediate circle, and those you know well, to contact and nurture a real relationship with at
least one supplier, a customer, and a competitor. The next step is to seek out relevant people from unrelated organizations, such as media
and government.
2. Give as much as you expect to get from every relationship.
Effective relationships in business require reciprocity – not a one-way half-hearted effort. Offer and deliver help, connect people with
each other, or share industry or nonprofit-sector information.
Only then will you feel satisfaction and find others willing to respond when you need help.
3. Selectively spend quality time on key relationships.
Spend time with your most important customers, your most productive employees, and leaders who can make the most difference to your
organization. These relationships will generate returns in the immediate future and in the long run. Avoid the trap of idle discussions and
ego building.
4. Keep your focus on the local social and business landscape.
Pay attention to bonds, loyalties, and networks that characterize your community. Recognize the norms, values and preferences that
shape the behavior of the people you need.
This will help you form a durable and effective network that you can maximize for your business interests.
5. Apply your time, brand, and resources to key social issues.
Build a constituency of relationships with people who have shared beliefs, interests, and ambitions. Collaborating with them on solving
shared social problems will turn them into engaged advocates of your business and make them your most powerful allies in building
other relationships.
6. Prune, renew, and reshape your networks frequently.
Nurture people relationships critical to your organization carefully and often. Push contacts whose usefulness has diminished over time
into your inactive network.
Regularly identify new relationships that are vital to the future of your business, and define strategies to build these connections.
I do offer some points of caution in all relationship building efforts:
More relationships are not always better. Highly successful business leaders don’t necessarily have larger networks. Be selective about
the associations you form, listen carefully for situations where you can add value and derive value, and prune the rest.
Over-investment in relationships can take precious time away from focusing on the technical elements of your business. Invest your time

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

wisely in balancing the demands of market awareness, new technologies, and future organizational strategy.
Sometimes strong relationship networks can shut out new people and new thinking, insulating you from fresh input from the “outside.”
Introducing new elements into your network will generate new perspectives, new experiences, and positive change.
Overall, the breadth and depth of your relationship networks is more critical to your business success than your ability to define and
build the perfect solution.
These relationships empower you to confidently and aggressively take risks, continually innovate, and recover from losses and setbacks
along the way. Your business is a community, not an island. You can’t run it alone.

Inc. helps entrepreneurs change the world. Get the advice you need to start, grow, and lead your business today. Subscribe here for unlimited
access.
May 10, 2018

The opinions expressed here by Inc.com columnists are their own, not those of Inc.com.

logo
Best Workplaces
Awarding excellence in company culture
Early Rate Deadline: December 10, 2021
Apply Now
G R E E N B U S I N E S S

Here’s What Green Businesses Can Expect in the Wake of the Climate Summit
T E C H N O L O G Y

Businesses Are Increasingly Relying on Automation to Compensate for Labor Shortages

T O P S T O R I E S T O P V I D E O S

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

T A K I N G C A R E

The Secret to a Superb Customer Service Team? Hiring Actual Customers
S E C U R I T Y

How to Protect Yourself from Ransomware Attacks, According to Cybersecurity Experts and Victims
T A K I N G C A R E

4 Strategic Partnerships That Paired Wildly Different Companies
S E C R E T W E A P O N

How to Navigate Emotions During Tough Negotiations, According to a Former FBI Negotiator
T A K I N G C A R E

Half of Small Businesses Are Facing Supply Shortages, but They Don’t Have to Wreck Christmas

Read Next
Paycom S P O N S O R E D C O N T E N T

Your Business Goes Further When Employees Do

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

Their Own Payroll
Employee-driven payroll can help boost accuracy and reduce
tedious HR tasks by putting power in your employees’ hands

O C T 1 5 , 2 0 2 1

When it comes to payroll, “just OK” is never OK.
But what else can your HR team do besides submitting an employee’s pay and hoping it isn’t followed by an angry email or a panicked
call late Friday because of a mistake? And that’s after they already spent hours on tedious data entry courtesy of an antiquated process.
They could try doing less and letting your employees have access to more.
With traditional payroll, addressing any discrepancies that can arise is a bit roundabout.
“Even the early and definitely second and third generations of employee self-service applications provided employees with visibility into
their prior paychecks and pay advice, but the access was, by its nature, always backward-facing,” wrote, HR Technology Conference
program chair and HR Happy Hour podcast co-host.
No payroll specialist knowingly submits an incorrect payroll, thus administering a correction is almost always a reaction.
But with employee-driven payroll, your HR department can be more proactive and focus on higher-level, strategic endeavors because the
software guides employees through effectively paying themselves. And no, this doesn’t mean they can set their own compensation.
Instead, the right HR tech empowers an employee to view, manage, and approve their paycheck–as well as ask for a fix if needed-
-before it hits their account, so it’s always correct.
Fewer errors
The price of rectifying mistakes can add up quickly. When has cutting a makeup check or conducting an on-the-fly audit ever been
convenient or cost-effective? And with a recent Ernst & Young study revealing that the average estimated cost of a manual HR task is
now $4.70, per task per employee, the price of antiquated processes shows no signs of slowing down, especially as your number of
employees rises.
The costs of corrections can quickly compound with untimely voids, wire transfers, direct deposit reversals, and rushed benefit

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

modifications. By catching errors prior to submission, employee-driven payroll can lead to fewer fees brought on by corrections and
adjustments.
And when payroll is inaccurate, your employees suffer. The American Payroll Association finds that 69% of Americans live paycheck to
paycheck, proving that the accuracy of their paychecks is paramount.
Thus, employee-driven payroll offers an extra layer of protection courtesy of the people who know their pay best, so mistakes can be
caught–and resolved–before submission, before they boil over into an emergency, and before they have a chance to chip away at your
bottom line.
Big rewards
Employee-driven payroll may sound like a revolution, and it absolutely is, but when you consider the responsibility employees already
have with self-service tech, it seems more like the logical next step.
By putting the power of payroll in employees’ hands, HR does ultimately do less. But more importantly, it enables them to do much,
much more. By reclaiming their time, they can focus on strategy and other business-forward initiatives that make them a valued,
indispensable partner to the C-suite. When HR professionals no longer have to spend time on employee data entry (and re-entry), they
move out of the middleman role and get to do the impactful, innovative things that move your organization forward.
Are you ready to bring your business into the future of payroll? You should meet Beti™, the industry-first, employee-driven payroll
experience from Paycom, declared a Top HR Product of 2021 by Human Resource Executive® magazine.
To learn more, read Why Employees Want (and Need) to Do Their Own Payroll.
Oct 15, 2021

Newsletter
logo
Inc. This Morning
A daily news digest curated for those interested in entrepreneurship

Sign Up

I N C . T O P A R T I C L E S

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

S P O N S O R E D B U S I N E S S C O N T E N T D i a n o m i l o g o

S T A N S B E R R Y R E S E A R C H

Wall St. legend’s biggest prediction in 50 years

D O U B L E C A S H , D O U B L E F U N

Earn 2% Cash Back. 1% on purchases. 1% as you pay for

A Neuroscientist’s Top 3 Tips to Avoid Emotional Over-
spending This Holiday Season

Read More

6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com

https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html[11/17/2021 1:28:27 PM]

P R I V A C Y P O L I C Y

N O T I C E O F C O L L E C T I O N

D O N O T S E L L M Y D A T A

A D V E N D O R P O L I C Y

T E R M S O F U S E

A D V E R T I S E

H E L P C E N T E R

S I T E M A P

C O P Y R I G H T 2 0 2 1 M A N S U E T O V E N T U R E S

  • inc.com
    • 6 Strategies for Building the Relationships You Need to Succeed in Business | Inc.com
  1. NlZWQtaW4tYnVzaW5lc3MuaHRtbAA=:
    1. button0:
    2. button0_(1):
    3. button0_(1)_(2):
    4. button0_(1)_(2)_(3):
  2. NlZWQtaW4tYnVzaW5lc3MuaHRtbAA=:
    1. form2:
      1. input0: Type your email
      2. button4:

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� ��’

�))�*+,�-./0123�42�567847�59:42;76<296=7>�[email protected]:A77�B296�C9:D=7::�EF629GF�B296�59:42;76:HI>7:JKLM�NOP�MLMQ�ROSTMQMT�RUKV�NOPQ�OQWKSXYKVXOS�ZOO[�ZX[M�VO�NOPQ�]PVÔ MQ_�̀OP�̂XWUV�aM�UO][MT�aNVUM�TXbbMQMS]M�aMVRMMS�UOR�NOP�MM�NOPQ�OQWKSXYKVXOS�KST�UOR�VUMN�TOcdPV�NOPQMZb�XS�VUMXQ�UOMc�eUMS�]PVÔ MQ�LXXV�NOPQ�VOQM�OQ�RMaXVMf�OQ�]KZZ�NOPf�RUKV�TO�VUMNMghMQXMS]M_�eUMS�VUMN�aPN�Ô MVUXSWf�RUKV�XSbOQ̂KVXOS�KST�PhhOQV�TO�VUMN�QM]MXLM_�iST�UOR�TO�VUMNWMV�UMZh�Xb�VUMN�SMMT�XV_jPVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂KhhXSW�UMZh�NOP�VO�̂Kh�OPV�VUM�RKN�NOPQ�]PVÔ MQ�MghMQXMS]M�NOPQ�OQWKSXYKVXOSclUX�KQVX]ZM�UOR�NOP�UOR�VO�PM�VUX�VOOZ�VO�X̂hQOLM�VUM�mPKZXVN�Ob�MQLX]M�VUKV�NOP�hQOLXTM�bOQ]PVÔ MQc�̀OP�]KS�KZO�TORSZOKT�NOPQ�bQMM�]PVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂KhhXSW�ROQ[UMMVf�aMZORcnF84�o:�59:42;76�<296=7>�[email protected]@D=GpjPVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂KhhXSW�X�K�RKN�VO�QM]OQTf�hZOV�KST�KSKZNYM�VUM�XSVMQK]VXOS�q�OQ�rVOP]UhOXSVr�q�VUKVK�]PVÔ MQ�UK�RXVU�NOPQ�OQWKSXYKVXOScsV�]OLMQ�MLMQN�XSVMQK]VXOS�bQÔ �XSXVXKZ�]OSVK]V�VO�hOVtKZM�bOZZORtPhc�sV�]KS�hXShOXSV�hQOaZM̂ �OQ�aPXZT�OSP]]M\M�XS�NOPQ�]PVÔ MQu�MghMQXMS]Mf�KST�O�X̂hQOLM�]PVÔ MQ�QMVMSVXOScÒPuZZ�ObVMS�UMKQ�]PVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂KhhXSW�PMT�XSVMQ]UKSWMKaZN�RXVU�KSOVUMQ�VMQ̂�q�]PVÔ MQMghMQXMS]M�̂KhhXSW�q�aPV�VUM�VRO�KQM�PaVZN�TXbbMQMSVcjPVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂KhhXSW�bO]PM�OS�hM]XbX]�XSVMQK]VXOS�VUKV�K�]PVÔ MQ�UK�RXVU�K�LMSTOQ�OQ�PhhZXMQceUMQMK�]PVÔ MQ�MghMQXMS]M�̂KhhXSW�VMST�VO�VK[M�K�RXTMQ�LXMR�Ob�VUM�]PVÔ MQ�MghMQXMS]M�K�K�RUOZMcJORMLMQf�VUM�VRO�KhhQOK]UM�UKLM�MSOPWU�XS�]Ô ^OS�bOQ�VUX�KQVX]ZM�VO�]OSXTMQ�VUM̂ �VOWMVUMQcv247wxM�]PVÔ MQ�kOPQSMN�̂Kh�VO�PSTMQVKST�KST�X̂hQOLM�MgXVXSW�]PVÔ MQ�MghMQXMS]Mc�sb�NOPQKX̂�X�VO�TMXWS�]Ô hZMVMZN�SMR�MghMQXMS]Mf�QMKT�OPQ�KQVX]ZMf�0yz{|}{}|�~����y�����y��z���y������}y�z�c

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� ��’

)*+�,*�-./0,/�-12,*3/.�4*1.5/6�70829:;;:<�=>[email protected]?�?AB>=�@[email protected]�=:�DEC�:F=�=>?�[email protected]=:D?H�?IC?HA?JG?�:K�L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:JNOP�Q/RS5/�T*1.�UVW/X,SY/[email protected]=Z�<:H[�:F=�?IEG=;L�<>E=�L:F�<EJ=�=:�EG>A??]�̂>[email protected]�<A;;�>?;C�L:F�=:�_?GA_?�<>AG>�=:FG>C:[email protected]�L:F�J??_=:�DEC]K̀�L:F�>E?�E�aH:E_�:ab?G=A?Z�@FG>�[email protected]�ĉ:�[email protected]?�[email protected]=:D?H�@[email protected]=A:J�;??;@�aL�ADCH:AJB�G:DCEJLd<A_?�[email protected]=:D?H�@?HAG?�CH:[email protected]@[email protected]�L:Fe;;�;A[?;L�J??_�=:�DEC�:F=�=>?�?J=AH?�[email protected]=:D?H�?IC?HA?JG?�KH:D�@=EH==:�[email protected]>]�̂>[email protected]�DEL�AJ:;?�@??HE;�_AKK?H?J=�b:FHJ?L�[email protected]]f:<??HZ�AK�L:FH�:ab?G=A?�[email protected]�ĉ:�H?_FG?�G:DC;[email protected]�Ea:F=�;E=?�_?;A[email protected]�aL�>E;KZc�K:H�?IEDC;?Z�L:F�GEJG:JG?J=HE=?�:J�@C?GAKAG�[email protected]�:K�L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:JZ�;A[?�=>?�<EH?>:[email protected]?Z�_?;A?HL�EJ_�[email protected]=:D?H�@?H[email protected]]gP�h0,i/.�j5R*.30,S*5k?I=Z�A_?J=AKL�<>L�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]�<EJ=�=:�?JBEB?�<A=>�L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:J]�l>E=�_:�=>?L�<EJ=�KH:D�A=mf:<�_:�=>?L�AJ=?HEG=�<A=>�L:Fm�l>?J�_:�=>?L�_:�=>[email protected]�EJ_�K:H�>:<�;:[email protected]<?H�=>[email protected]?�[email protected]=A:[email protected]�aL�pqrstuvwp�vwxyuzqrvyw��Ea:F=�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]�EJ_�=>?AH�a?>EA:H]�̂>[email protected]>=�AJG;F_?�zqu{tr�ut|tqu}s�Z�xy}~|�puy~�|�Z�@FH[email protected]�EJ_�qwq��rv}|�Z�:H�??J�trswypuq�sv}|r~�vt|�]�?D?Da?HZ�<>?J�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]�G>::@?�E�CH:_FG=�:H�@?HAG?�KH:D�L:FH�G:DCEJLZ�=>?L�EH?�E;@:�aFLAJBAJ=:�=>?�c?IC?HA?JG?c�=>E=�L:F�_?;A?HZ�@:�[email protected]�ADC:H=EJ=�=>E=�<>E=�L:FeH?�:KK?HAJB�[email protected]�=>?AH�?IC?G=E=A:[email protected]]�@?�<>E=�L:F�;?EHJ�=:��t�t�y���tu|ywq|��K:H�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]]�̂>[email protected]�<A;;�>?;C�L:F�=:�[email protected]=EJ_�?IEG=;L<>E=�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]�<EJ=Z�>:<�L:F�GEJ�D:@=�?KK?G=A?;L�D??=�=>?AH�[email protected]�EJ_�sy��ry�tz�qrsv�t��<A=>=>?D]�[email protected]?EHG>�<A=>AJ�L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:J�[email protected]�ADC:H=EJ=Z�=::]�̂E;[�=:�=>?�C?:C;?�=>E=�AJ=?HEG=�<A=>�[email protected]=:[email protected]_AH?G=;L]��:F�G:F;_�K:HD�E�GH:@@dKFJG=A:JE;�=?ED�=>E=�AJG;[email protected]�KH:J=;AJ?�[email protected]=:D?H�@?HAG?�@=EKKZ�DEH[[email protected]_�@:GAE;�D?_AE�[email protected]�K:H�?IEDC;?]>̂[email protected]�?JEa;[email protected]�L:F�=:�BEAJ�E�_??C?H�[email protected]=EJ_AJB�:K�=>?�H:[email protected]�=>E=�L:FH�[email protected]=:[email protected]�=E[?�=:�?JBEB?�<A=>L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:JZ�EJ_�=>?�;??;�:K�@?HAG?�=>E=�=>?L�H?G?A?�<>?J�=>?L�_:]�P�j�/5,SR6�T*1.�-12,*3/.���*1Xi8*S5,2��[email protected]=:[email protected]�AJ=?HEG=�<A=>�L:FH�:HBEJAME=A:J�[email protected]�E�EHA?=L�:K�c=:FG>C:[email protected]]c�̂>[email protected]?�DEL�AJG;F_?�[email protected]=:H?EG=AA=LZ�:J;AJ?�@?EHG>[email protected]�@:GAE;�D?_AEZ�=?;?C>:J?�GE;;@Z�a;:[email protected]�>?;C�[email protected][@Z�?DEA;�[email protected]�:H�J?<@;[email protected]:J;AJ?�G>E=�@?H[email protected]�G:[email protected]�CH:_FG=�_?D:[email protected]=HE=A:[email protected]�:H�@E;[email protected]�GE;;@]

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� ��’

)*+,�-./01,�23,*4252,3�-./6�.678*29842.*0:�4./+;<.2*4:=�4;2*>�8?./4�;[email protected]�4;,-�855,+4�-./6�+/:4.A,6:B�C;.3.�4;,-�+.*48+4�25�4;,6,�2:�8�<6.?D,AE�C;,6,�+8*�4;,-�52*3�2*5.6A842.*�8?./4�3,D21,6-E�F:�24�,8:-�5.6�4;,A4.�7,4�-./6�+.*48+4�3,482D:EG./�A27;4�;81,�8�?62DD28*4�+/:4.A,6�:,612+,�4,8A=�,87,6�4.�3,8D�@24;�2*H/262,:=�?/4=�25�-./6�@,?:24,�.6�:8D,:4,8A�86,�7212*7�./4�A2:D,832*7�.6�+.*5D2+42*7�2*5.6A842.*=�4;,*�4;,�+/:4.A,6�,I<,62,*+,�@2DD�?,�.*,�.5+.*5/:2.*=�684;,6�4;8*�.5�76,84�:,612+,BJKLMNG./�+8*04�+.*46.D�,1,6-�4./+;<.2*4�O�5.6�,I8A<D,=�4;,�+.AA,*4:�<,.<D,�A8>,�.*�PQRSTU�VWXST�[email protected],1,6=�-./�+8*�3,1,D.<�8�<.:2421,�8*3�+.*:2:4,*4�+/:4.A,6�,I<,62,*+,�84�4;,�4./+;<.2*4:�4;84-./�3.�+.*46.DB�Z;2:�@2DD�;81,�8�:27*252+8*4�2A<8+4�.*�4;,�5,,3?8+>�4;84�-./�6,+,21,�4;6./7;�.4;,6+;8**,D:B[�]̂ L_̀aM�LbM�cMd�eLfgMh�Ki�jK̂k�l̂ hLKmMk�nopMk̀[email protected]=�@24;�4;,�>*[email protected],37,�4;84�-./�784;,6,3�2*�4;,�<6,12./:�:4,<:=�23,*425-�4;,�:,H/,*+,�.5�,1,*4:�4;84-./6�+/:4.A,6:�,I<,62,*+,�@;,*�4;,-�2*4,68+4�@24;�-./6�+.A<8*-B�s*�,I8A<D,�.5�8�+.AA.*�+/:4.A,6,I<,62,*+,�56.A�,*3�4.�,*3�2:�<6.123,3�2*�527/6,�t�u?,[email protected]@,1,6�+/:4.A,6�w./6*,-:�+8*�186-�:27*252+8*4D-�?-�+/:4.A,6=�<6.3/+4�D2*,�.6�:,612+,=�:.�-./�A8-�*,,34.�3,:+62?,�A.6,�4;8*�.*,B�Z;,�w./6*,-�48>,*�?-�8�+/:4.A,6�D..>2*7�4.�?/-�2*3/:4628D�A8+;2*,[email protected];.D,:8D,=�5.6�2*:48*+,=�@./D3�?,�1,6-�3255,6,*4�56.A�4;,�w./6*,-�.5�:.A,.*,�.63,62*7�58:4�5..3�.*�8*2A</D:,B x̀ĝkM�y�z�nofmp_M�Ki�f�lKmmKa�l̂ hLKmMk�nopMk̀MaqMxkKm�na{�LK�na{

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� )�’

�*+,�-./�.01+�,12�-,13+425�6+,5/27�4.889/:�3+�3.;2�.�-0+125�0++;�.3�.�8.539-,0.5�13.:2�+<�3=2�-,13+4256+,5/27>?+5�[email protected]�7+,�4.7�B./3�3+�<+-,1�+/�3=2�-,13+425C1�[email protected]/-2�B=2/�./�+5D25�91�D209E252D�0.32>�?9:,52FA�G20+BA�1=+B1�=+B�3=91�49:=3�0++;>HIJKLM�N�O�PQRSTUM�VW�R�XKYZVSML�PQTMLIM[M�][̂VÛI[J�R_LV̀KZaY�bRZM�cMUÎMLd

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� (�’

�)*�+,-.,�/-00123456787�987�:9;<�=>??787;@�A9<B�@C�[email protected]�9�[email protected]:78�FCE8;7<�:9GHI�JCC=�:[email protected]=�>B�@C�EB7�KLMN�OPQR�SMPTUPNK�H�VCE�D9;�EB7�@67B7�@C�:9G�<CE8�[email protected]:78BW�FCE8;7<�?8C:@67�>;>@>9X�[email protected]�C?�>;@[email protected]>C;�8>[email protected]�@68CEJ6�@C�@67�[email protected]�@[email protected]�@67<�87D7>Y7�[email protected]�GE8D69B>;J�<[email protected]�C8�B78Y>D7H�VCEWXX�@67;�Z7�9ZX7�@C�G>;GC>;@�9;<�GX9D7B�A6787�@67�B78Y>D7�C8�>;?C8:[email protected]>C;�@[email protected]�<CEG8CY>=7�>B�>;DC;B>[email protected];@�C8�>;[email protected][>JE87�]�Z7XCA]�B6CAB�9;�7̂9:GX7�C?�[email protected]�9�[email protected]:78�7̂G78>7;D7�:9G�:>[email protected]�XCC_�X>_7�?C8�BC:7C;7GE8D69B>;J�[email protected]�567�=>??787;@�[email protected]�C?�@67>8�7̂G78>7;D7�987�X>[email protected]=�9XC;J�@67�@CG�9̂>B]�9;=�@[email protected]>;@B�987�X>[email protected]=�>;�@67�?98�[email protected]�DCXE:;H�567>8�JC9XB]�@67�>;?C8:[email protected]>C;�@[email protected]�@67<�87D7>Y7�?8C:�@67C8J9;>̀[email protected]>C;]�9;=�@67>8�X>_7X<�7:[email protected]>C;9X�87BGC;B7B�987�9XBC�>;DXE=7=�?C8�79D6�[email protected]�C?�@67�FCE8;7<Ha10b

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� )�’

*+�,-..�/+�0123451670+8�91/.+�/7:�-;10617+8�<12�3/7�673.2:-�104-=�>/301=+�+234�/+�32+01;[email protected]+0617+�/7:�5-=3-50617+8�15-=/0617/.�5-=>1=;/73-�;-0=63+8�/7:�1=9/76A/0617/.�,-/B7-++-+CDEFGHI�J�K�LMNOPQI�RS�N�TGUVROIH�WRGHXIY�ZNP�[R]EXFVI�̂GH_NUI�RS�[RSV]NHI
1̀�3=-/0-�<12=�1,7�;/5�2+679�04-�0-;5./0-�/a1b-8�:1,7.1/:�12=�>=–,1=B+4–08�cdedCf12=�;/5�:1-+7?0�4/b-�01�.11B�.6B-�04-�17-�+41,7�67�>692=-�gC�̀4-=-/=-�hijk�ledim�niko�mp�qedodjm�mcdhr�<12=+�312.:�a-�/�+6;5.-�06;-.67-8/�36=32./=�=-5=-+-70/0617�1>�04-�s12=7-<8�/7�ittujumk�vuileih�8�1=�/,460-a1/=:�+B-034C�w0�312.:�-b-7�a-�/�b6:-1�1=�/7�670-=/306b-�34/=0C4̀-=-�/=-�/.+1�+-b-=/.�17.67-�:6960/.�;/55679�011.+�04/0�<12�3/7�2+-�01�3=-/0-32+01;-=�-x5-=6-73-�;/5+8�.6B-�yhiqzk{8�|}~edooui{�/7:��p��cqpujm�ioc�piev{C����NQE�NVI��RGH��IUGQVUf12?..�7–:�01�b/.6:/0-�<12=�;/5�01�;/B-�+2=-�04/0�60?+�/+�/332=/0-�/+�51++6a.-Cf12�3/7�:1�046+�a<�/+B679�>1=�>–:a/3B�>=1;�>132+�9=125+8�/�32+01;-=�>1=2;8104-=�:-5/=0;-70+�67�<12=�1=9/76A/06178�1=�<12=�0-/;�;-;a-=+C4̀6+�,6..�4-.5�<12�01�9/29-�41,�,-..�<12=�;/5�=->.-30+�04-�=-/.60<�1>�04-32+01;-=�-x5-=6-73-C

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� ��’

)*�+,-./01�2345�6-789�:;:<=>?�[email protected][email protected]?A�?FG?AH?;B?�E:GI�A?J?A�K:BL�D9�DM?�9KN?BDHO?C�DM:[email protected]�HP?;DHJH?P�H;�QD?G�RS�TA?�[email protected]�DA=H;U�D9�C9<O?�:�G:[email protected]<:A�GA9K<?EI�9A�[email protected]�V:;D�D9�?;M:;B?�DM?�?;DHA?�[email protected]?A�?FG?AH?;B?WXHCD?P�K?<9V�:A?�C9E?�B9EE9;�[email protected]?C�DM:D�EHUMD�M?<G�[email protected]�VHDM�[email protected]�:;:<[email protected]�B:;�[email protected]<?E?;D�DM?C?�VHDM�E9A?�CG?BHJHB�[email protected]?CDH9;C�A?<:D?P�D9�[email protected]@CH;?CC�:;P�HDC�9KN?BDHO?CSTA?�[email protected]�K9EK:APH;U�DM?�[email protected]?A�VHDM�D99�[email protected]�H;J9AE:DH9;I�9AGA9OHPH;U�D99�<HDD<?W8MH;L�:[email protected]�VM?DM?A�[email protected][email protected]?AC�M:O?�:BB?CC�D9�DM?�AHUMDH;J9AE:DH9;�:D�DM?�AHUMD�DHE?I�:;P�L;9V�VM9�D9�B9;D:BD�D9�U?D�M?<G9A�H;J9AE:DH9;S�[9A�?F:EG<?I�B:;�DM?=�?:CH<=�U?D�:BL;9V<?PUE?;D9J�9AP?ACI�B9EG<:H;DCI�:;P�C9�9;WX99L�:D�DM?�[email protected];DC�H;�[email protected]�B9EG:;=S�8M?=�[email protected]<P�V9AL�:[email protected]�H;D?;P�DM?E�D9�V9ALI�:;P�J<9V�H;�:�V:=�DM:DC�<9UHB:<�:;P�?:C=D9�J9<<9VS�]J�DM?=�P9;DI�DMH;L�:[email protected]�M9V�[email protected]�B:;�BM:;U?�DM?E�D9P?<HO?A�DM?�[email protected]:<HD=�9J�[email protected]?A�?FG?AH?;B?�[email protected]�V:;[email protected]�H;D?A;:<�9AU:;H>:DH9;�[email protected]�K?�B<?:A�:;P�?JJ?BDHO?S�]D�[email protected]<P;9D�B9;[email protected]?�[email protected]?AC�K=�H;O9<OH;U�D99�E:;=�G?9G<?�9AP?G:ADE?;DCI�J9A�?F:EG<?S�̂:L?�[email protected]?�DM:D�[email protected]�M:O?�B<?:A9KN?BDHO?C�A?U:APH;U�DM?�<?O?<�9J�C?AOHB?�DM:D�[email protected]�GA9OHP?I�:;P�DM:[email protected]�D?:E�E?EK?AC�L;9V�M9V�D9�E??D�DM?ES_*�̀51-a�2345�6-7�-b�-�cded,f�g3h4i1,a]DC�:�U99P�HP?:�D9�A?OHCHD�:;P�@GP:D?�[email protected][email protected]?A�[email protected];?=�E:G�[email protected]<:A<=IG:[email protected]<:A<=�HJ�[email protected]�9AU:;H>:DH9;�H;[email protected]?C�:;=�CHU;HJHB:;D�BM:;U?C�j�:PPH;U9A�A?E9OH;U�:�[email protected];DI�J9A�H;CD:;B?S8MHC�V:=�[email protected]�B:;�L??G�[email protected][email protected]?AC�:;P�DM?HA�;??PC�:D�DM?�JA9;D�:;P�B?;D?A9J�DMH;LH;U�:BA9CC�[email protected]�9AU:;H>:DH9;I�:;P�E:L?�[email protected]?�DM:D�[email protected]�9JJ?A�:B9;CHCD?;D<=�MHUM�[email protected]:<HD=�9J�C?AOHB?Sk1/�l3d,[email protected]?A�[email protected];?=�E:GC�n:;P�[email protected]?A�?FG?AH?;B?�E:GCo�B:;�[email protected]�O:<@:K<?�H;CHUMD�H;D9�M9V�[email protected][email protected]?AC�?;U:U?�:;P�H;D?A:BD

���������������
��
����������������������������
��������������������������
�!�����”#��

$�������

“� �!�����”#������������ #�����
��%&'(“$�� ‘�’

)*+,�-./0�.0123*42+*.3�235�*+6�70.5/8+6�.0�690:*896;<-�=.>>.)*31�+,9�8/[email protected]�A./039-B�-./�823�>9203�),909�+,9*0�39956235�9C798+2+*.36�209�6/88966=/>>-�D9*31�?9+B�235�),909�-./�3995�+.*?70.:9;E.�8092+9�-./0�?27B�/69�+,9�=.>>.)*31�9*1,+�6+976FG;�H9=*39�I./0�JDA98+*:96K;�L2+,90�M3=.0?2+*.3N;�M593+*=-�I./0�O/6+.?90�PE./8,7.*3+6PQ;�J/+>*39�+,9�R9-�S+2196�.=�I./0�O/6+.?90�TC790*9389U;�S+20+�V277*31WX;�Y2>*52+9�I./0�Z96/>+6[;�32>-49�I./0�V27];�E092+�I./0�V27�26�2�̂*:*31�H.8/?93+_̀ abc̀de�fghicdjg

Worksheet

© Copyright Mind Tools Ltd, 2006-2019.Please feel free to copy this sheet for your own use and to share with friends,
co-workers or team members, just as long as you do not change it in any way.

For information about Customer Journey Mapping, visit www.mindtools.com/customer-journey-mapping.

Stages of a Customer’s Journey

Customer’s
emotions

Customer Journey Mapping
T
O
U
C
H
P
O
IN

T
S

  • MindTools – How to Create Customer Journey Maps – Strategy Tools
  • CON_Customer-Journey-Mapping-Worksheet
  1. Happiness Situation 10404:
  2. Happiness Situation 10406:
  3. Happiness Situation 10407:
  4. Happiness Situation 10408:
  5. Happiness Situation 10409:
  6. Happiness Situation 104010:
  7. Happiness Situation 104011:
  8. Happiness Situation 10405:
  9. Happiness Situation 104012:
  10. Happiness Situation 104013:
  11. Happiness Situation 104014:
  12. Happiness Situation 104015:
  13. Happiness Situation 104016:
  14. Happiness Situation 104017:
  15. Happiness Situation 104018:
  16. Happiness Situation 104019:
  17. Happiness Situation 104020:
  18. Happiness Situation 104021:
  19. Happiness Situation 104022:
  20. Happiness Situation 104023:
  21. Happiness Situation 104024:
  22. Happiness Situation 104025:
  23. Happiness Situation 104026:
  24. Happiness Situation 104027:
  25. Happiness Situation 104028:
  26. Happiness Situation 104029:
  27. Happiness Situation 104030:
  28. Happiness Situation 104031:
  29. Happiness Situation 104032:
  30. Happiness Situation 104033:
  31. Happiness Situation 104034:
  32. Happiness Situation 104035:
  33. Happiness Situation 104036:
  34. Happiness Situation 104037:
  35. Happiness Situation 104038:
  36. Happiness Situation 104039:
  37. Happiness Situation 104040:
  38. Happiness Situation 104041:
  39. Happiness Situation 104042:
  40. Happiness Situation 104043:
  41. Happiness Situation 104044:
  42. Happiness Situation 104045:
  43. Happiness Situation 104046:
  44. Happiness Situation 104047:
  45. Happiness Situation 104048:
  46. Happiness Situation 104049:
  47. Happiness Situation 104050:
  48. Happiness Situation 104051:
  49. Happiness Situation 104053:
  50. Happiness Situation 104054:
  51. Happiness Situation 104055:
  52. Happiness Situation 104056:
  53. Happiness Situation 104057:
  54. Happiness Situation 104058:

Managing Customers – the Key to Competitive Advantage

New Ideas and Design Thinking

Ethnography, Mapping Tools, and Competitive Edge

Cultivating Relationships

References

Week 5: Customer-driven Innovation

Skill #6: Develop new ideas that solve customer problems.

Lesson 1 of 4

New Ideas and Design Thinking

Remember my mantra: distinct… or extinct.

Tom Peters

No matter the size or type of organization, a key job of any manager is maintaining �nancial

sustainability.  One strategy that has been used by leaders to help create sustainability for an

organization is known as competitive edge or competitive advantage. This concept is

predicated upon the notion that if a business creates value in producing a good or service that

is highly desirable to its customers, then the business will be set apart from others in the

same industry bringing more business than others in the same �eld.  This notion has reigned

supreme and is still relevant today. 

However, it has become noticeable to many leaders and business educators that technology

and its disruptive nature has in many ways leveled the playing �elds of many businesses.

Traditional methods of creating competitive edge, speed of production and delivery, direct

access to materials, market availability, etc. have lost their uniqueness to customers leaving

price an area where competition remains.  So how does a leader separate his or her company

from competitors?  Innovation is the answer and not just product innovation. Coming up with

the next generation of Apple product keeps customers coming back but can every company

always have the new “thing” that will keep or increase their customer base? Not realistically

but a manager survey again tells us that “Developing new ideas to solve customer’s

problems” is a key skill to have in this social media world (Moss, 2018). Many products and

services are sold today based on customer ratings and reviews. To get the �fth star or the

Triple A rating on Angie’s list requires that you more than exceed the customer’s needs. 

Design Thinking

Design Thinking De�ned –

According to WhatIs.Com, “Design thinking is an iterative approach to problem solving that
intentionally seeks out people with di�erent perspectives, knowledge, skills and experience and
has them work together to create a practical solution for a real-world problem.”

There are Five Steps in Design Thinking:

1. Empathize

2. De�ne

3. Ideate

4. Prototype

5. Test

Design Thinking Explained –

MIT Management provides an excellent explanation of Design Thinking. They talk about the
importance of:

1. Understanding the problem

2. Involving Users

3. Developing Solutions

4. Prototyping

5. Testing

How do these steps relate to those that you learned about in the Design Thinking De�ned Tab?

Design Thinking Process –

Stanford created a Design Thinking Process document that provides more explanation for each
of the steps in design thinking. It provides the What, Why, and How for each step and also
provides a transition phase between each step. You can download the document here.

Ethnography

According to the National Park Service’s Ethnographic Research Center, “Ethnography is the
study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant
observation and face-to-face interviewing.”

Read this article to learn more about the following (click titles on the right column within the
article):

1. What is ethnographic research?

2. Why is ethnographic research conducted?

3. How is it di�erent from other social science research?

Lesson 2 of 4

Ethnography, Mapping Tools, and Competitive Edge

There is only one boss. The customer. And he can �re
everybody in the company from the chairman on down,
simply by spending his money somewhere else. 

Sam Walton

W H AT I S E T H N O G R A P H Y R E S E A R C H ? W H E N A N D H O W T O U S E E T H N O G R A P. . .

4. Who uses ethnographic research?

According to Spotless, “Ethnography can help investigate very complicated or critical design
challenges. A good researcher is essential when observing and/or interacting with target
audiences in their real-life environment.”

Read through the rest of this article to �nd out more about:

1. What is ethnographic research?

2. Methods associated with ethnography

3. When to use ethnography

4. Advantages of ethnography

5. Disadvantages of ethnography

6. Risks associated with ethnography

W H AT I S E T H N O G R A P H Y R E S E A R C H ? W H E N A N D H O W T O U S E E T H N O G R A P. . .

What were the similarities and di�erences in these two articles in

terms of Ethnography and its uses? How can this be bene�cial

when looking at customers and their habits? What other ways can

businesses use ethnography to help with competitive advantage?

Customer Mapping 

According to MindTools, “Customer journey mapping helps you to map out the ways your

customers experience your organization.” Customer journey mapping is a way for an

organization to record and analyze the interactions that they have with their customers from

the time that they �rst interact with them through the the post-sale follow-up as a way to

improve retention. There are eight steps in customer journey mapping:

Read through the article for more detailed information on each of these eight steps. Each step

has its own section in the article that goes through all of the di�erent points to keep in mind

for that step. Some steps also have sub-steps.

De�ne your objectives1

Gather information2

Identify your customer “touchpoints”3

Outline the key stages of your customer experience4

Start mapping5

Validate your results6

Analyze your map7

Treat your map as a living document8

Customer Journey Maps

Harvard Business Review developed an article about improving the customer experience

through the use of customer journey maps. You can view that article here.

Innovation
Going back to what we covered in the last module, innovation and creativity are still at the

forefront of the success of the 21st century leader, so while these tools are important to learn

more about the customer and his or her needs, preferences, and habits, creativity and

innovation are what will be needed in order to satisfy those needs, preferences and habits.

Read the Creativity and Innovation article to learn more about this concept.

Skill #7: Cultivate your customers and their employees on every level of the
organization. 

Isn’t cultivating customer relationships a duh point you ask? Of course, you have to get along

with your customers.  No that is one of the biggest mistakes a manager can make. All the new

ideas in the world will not get you to keep your customers if you cannot get their attention.

Cultivating customers means getting to know their business and the problems they face.

 Intimate contact with the customer and/or their employees is the only way to collect this

information. Trust raises its ugly head again in our skill set. How does a manager build the

kind of relationships with their customers that will a�ord them the opportunity? 

Lesson 3 of 4

Cultivating Relationships

Five Ways to Build Customer Relationships –

According to Entrepreneur.Com, “To create customer relationships, and keep them strong, you
must do all you can to engage customers.” They provide a list of �ve ways that you can build
relationships with customers to ensure they return:

1. Communicate

2. Exceed expectations

3. Ask for feedback

4. Connect 

5. Show appreciation

Make sure to read the entire article to gain more detailed and speci�c information about these
�ve ways to build relationships with customers.

Managing Customer Relationships –

According to Business.gov.au, there are three main areas important in managing customer
relationships:

1. Build customer relationships

2. Maintain strong customer relationships

3. Measure customer relationships

According to the article, each of these three main areas has several subpoints that are
important to read about as well, as these are very general topic areas. Make sure to read the
entire article to capture the important details. 

How to Build Personal Relationships With Customers: CRM –

According to Inc.com, “Companies in all industries and of all sizes understand that customers
are perhaps their most valuable assets. Improving the overall customer experience is vital for
continued success and survival, and always has been.” They provide �ve main ways to build
personal relationships with customers:

1. Communication

2. Rewards

3. Enhanced customer services

4. Start small and emphasize human touch

5. Be �exible

There are many more details to each of these �ve points, so make sure that you read the entire
article to capture all of the important speci�cs. As you are reading, make sure that you are

noting the similarities and di�erences in the articles.

Six Strategies for Building Relationships to Succeed in Business –

According to Inc.com, building a good product is not enough. It is also important to have
strong interpersonal skills to have a successful business. Here are six ways to step up your
relationship results:

1. Build new relationships by diversifying your networks

2. Give as much as you expect to get from every relationship

3. Selectively spend quality time on key relationships

4. Keep your focus on the local social and business landscape

5. Apply your time, brand, and resources to key social issues

6. Prune, renew, and reshape your networks frequently

Make sure to read the entire article to understand the context of these six concepts. Although
these can apply to relationships in general, how can they relate to the other articles and what
they said about customer relationships speci�cally? What about leader/employee relationships
as a leader for the 21st century?

Considerations for Building Strong International Relationships –

According to TradeReady, strong relationships are especially important in international
business. They provided �ve considerations for building strong international relationships:

1. Focus on building credibility with global business partners

2. Set the right expectations so you can always follow-through

3. Listen to your global customers and adapt your o�erings accordingly

4. Share any knowledge that will help your partnerships succeed

5. It comes down to trust for building long-term international business relationships

Make sure to read the entire article for more context and depth on these �ve considerations.
Although this is about international relationships, how do these concepts relate to those in the
other articles about customer relationships? What is similar and what is di�erent?

Lesson 4 of 4

References

An introduction to design thinking process guide. (n.d.) Institute of Design at

Stanford. https://dschool-

old.stanford.edu/sandbox/groups/designresources/wiki/36873/attachments/74b3

d/ModeGuideBOOTCAMP2010L.pdf

1

Agbor, E. (2008). Creativity and innovation: The leadership dynamics.

https://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/jsl/vol1iss1/JSL_Vol1iss1_Agbo

r.pdf

2

Anonymous. (2020) How to manage customer relationships.

https://www.business.gov.au/people/customers/how-to-manage-customer-

relationships

3

Dubois, L. (2010). How to build personal relationships with customers.

https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/08/how-to-build-personal-relationships-

with-customers.html

4

Kappel, M. (2017) 5 ways to build killer relationships with customers.

https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/282364
5

Linke, R. (2017). Design thinking, explained. https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-

made-to-matter/design-thinking-explained
6

Logan, B. (n.d.) When and how to use ethnographic research.

https://www.spotless.co.uk/insights/ethnography-when-and-how/
7

Louei, A. (2015). 5 considerations for building strong international business

relationships. http://www.tradeready.ca/2015/trade-takeaways/5-considerations-
8

building-strong-international-business-relationships/

Mind Tools Content Team. (n.d.). Customer journey mapping: Seeing your

business through your customers’ eyes.

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_85.htm

9

Richardson, A. (2010). Using customer journey maps to improve customer

experience. http://www.iimagineservicedesign.com/wp-

content/uploads/2015/07/Experience-Maps-Using-Customer-Journey-Maps-to-

Improve-Customer-Experience.pdf

10

What is ethnographic research? (2020). Park Ethnography Program.

https://www.nps.gov/ethnography/aah/aaheritage/ERCb.htm
11

Zilling, M. (2018). 6 strategies for building the relationships you need to succeed

in business. https://www.inc.com/martin-zwilling/6-strategies-for-building-

relationships-you-need-to-succeed-in-business.html

12

Writerbay.net

Do you need help with this or a different assignment? In a world where academic success does not come without efforts, we do our best to provide the most proficient and capable essay writing service. After all, impressing professors shouldn’t be hard, we make that possible. If you decide to make your order on our website, you will get 15 % off your first order. You only need to indicate the discount code GET15.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper