Human resource project

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HRM 512

Human Recourse Management


Final Research Paper Outline



Written Evaluation of an Article



Guidelines:

The evaluation of the article promotes a demonstration of using psychological journals and the evaluation of analysis of basic research skills.

Write a 2-3 pages 1.5 spaced essay (12-point font size, that is 350 to 400 words) and include the following criteria:

1. Summarize the Case.

2. Critically analyze the author/s main points.

3. Indicate the pros and cons of the Case/Paper with regard to design, participants, setting, validity and reliability.

4. Make your own recommendations to improve the article.

Each of these criteria should have its own section in your paper.


My evaluation will be on your:

Adequate description of the topic.

The thoughtfulness of your analysis (your ability to apply the content, concepts, knowledge learned in this course.

The expository clarity and coherence of your essay. (How clearly do you explain the topic

And the organization of pattern… the flow of paper… the use of headings and sub-headings.


Parts of the Evaluation

1. Introduction:

Introduce the author/s and the title of the paper.

Provide the author’s main point/s (the entire work or the main section you are evaluating)

State your overall evaluation of the work

Add background information (what the overall topic is related to?

2. abstract:

Write a summary of the entire work or the section objectively (untainted by your opinion):

Author’s overall point/s

Support provided for the overall point

3. Evaluation:

Accuracy of information

Definitions of key terms

Hidden assumptions

Clarity of language

Fairness

Logic and Organization

4. Response:

What do I agree with or disagree?

What does the author get right or wrong?

Would you recommend this work as a research source? You can use sources to back up your opinion.

5. Conclusion:

Remind the reader of overall importance of topic

Combine your rating with personal response to focus on overall strengths and weaknesses.

Use this to state what you believe of ultimate success of the work.


For this specific Case Study, Consider the Following:

Summarize the case and provide your evaluation for what is discussed, then provide your point of view on how the HR practices given in the case are used in the business context in Saudi Arabia (i.e, do you agree or disagree with the Author), then propose the proper managerial implications for the Saudi companies and managers.

2

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34 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

“Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices:

Saudi Aerospace Engineering Industries Case Study”

Muhammad Nabeel Siddiqui

Arabian Gulf Manufactures LTD

Jeddah- Saudi Arabia

[email protected]

Abstract

Saudi Arabia is known for its immense petroleum reserves and they are the largest and the richest nation in the Middle

East. Becoming a leading member of World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1999, their economic and political efforts

have flourished all the way specifically in the Middle East region. The present research work has considered a case

study approach in which a case of SAEI- Saudi Aerospace Engineering Industries was taken under consideration. The

reason behind carrying out the study, specifically on this sector was the fact that it was going through a process of

privatization that aided in obtaining information from both private and public sector simultaneously. Since the study

examined and found the impact of Arabian culture on the HRM functions, therefore the type of case study chosen was

an exploratory one. According to research conducted, it was found that Gulf countries, including Saudi Arabia consist

of a very young population, which is known for its intense hard work and voice of the country, eventually leading to

the success of a nation. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is well equipped and well managed by King Abdullah. He took

initiatives to reform the infrastructure of the country with cooperative management. To make a prominent recognition

in the global economy, Saudis are to be equipped with local contributors whilst reducing the foreign dependency,

hence having self-sufficiency will allow the contributors to become the global citizens. In this era, Saudi Arabia is

under an intense paradox of high unemployment and huge amount of resources and no direction to utilize them. There

are number of key factors that have driven to high unemployment: low motivation, less fringe benefits, lack of

satisfaction and high salary expectations. The question is will this Gulf region be able to regain what it has lost in the

way of progress?

Introduction

Saudi Arabia is a country that is deep rooted with

diversity. This region has a very important

significance due to religion and Islam and has a very

sacred image in the eyes of Muslims. The kingdom of

Saudi Arabia works on the basis of monarchy. The

king is the head of the House, Chief and the Head of

the government. The king is considered to be the most

powerful authority in the state and has the highest

commands. Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 with an

estimated population of 27 million. Riyadh is the

capital of the cosmopolitan Saudi Arabia with an

estimated population of 4 million people; having a

world-class infrastructure. The concept of

Globalization has spread all over the world and has not

left any nation untouched, including Saudi Arabia.

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35 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

This region of the Gulf countries has an immense

potential to over-take the leading countries in the

world. The discovery of oil wells leads to major

changes in the economic and political structure of the

country. It was a path to a changed lifestyle. This

diversity has led Saudi Arabia in a complex situation

and managing this diversity is a big task. Hence, in

order to understand Saudi Arabia’s economic and

political situation, it is important to have a closer view

of its deep rooted traditions and religion. Saudi

Arabia’s official language and religion is Arabic and

Islam, respectively. The country is looking for ways to

bring advancements of the society into the social and

economic structure. However, this region is found to

be stuck between power struggle, modernization and

preservation of culture.

Literature Review

Ministry of Economy and Planning (2008) clarified

that human resource management structure of Saudi

Arabia is based on the following elements; economic

structure, political stability, the prevailing labor

market, the societal and national culture and the HRD

policies. Human Resource aims at employing

competent, dedicated and flexible workforce who can

join efforts and thrive to accomplishing organization

goals and objectives. The employees fulfilling the

above stated requirements and completes the structure

are recruited in the private and public sector.

The other dimension to be taken under consideration

is the collectivism-individualism strategies. It is

believed that organizations in the eastern region or

Middle East region are more prone towards

collectivism. For example; Chinese organizations,

influenced by collectivism, depends on the

bureaucracy and is run by their founders, whilst the

promotion is very much centralized, rules and

regulations are standardized. On the other hand,

Western organizations such as America follows

individualism, ran by a board of directors and usually

organizations are owned by a group of shareholders.

They belief in employee empowerment, staff

promotions are performance and competency based.

They share a more decentralized hierarchy of an

organization.

Countries across the globe are progressing towards an

economy where greater reliance is on the intellectual

capabilities than on physical inputs or natural

resources. Such economies are also called as

‘Knowledge-Based’ economies. This makes the

economy more strong and acute. For knowledge based

economies it is very important to progress an intensive

utilization of human capital. As stated earlier religion

is deeply embedded in this region of Middle East

(Saudi Arabia), and it plays an integral part as how to

carry out daily routines and obligations, yet most of

the researches seem to neglect this very influencing

part of the management (Randeree, 2012). Mellahi,

and Wilkinson (2014) believed that the reason behind

this negligence is that many organizations have a very

neutral overview for the religion and employees never

make a chaos over their beliefs at the jobs. However,

from the study of the literature of the Middle Eastern

countries, this assumption was proved to be wrong. A

Muslim is required to spend his day in accordance with

the teachings of Islam concerning with their behaviors

in the workplace (Randeree, 2012). The region of

Saudi Arabia is very much caught up in the battle

between modernization and yet maintaining and

preserving the traditional Islamic and culture values.

The societal culture is very much diversified as the

major population is the inhabitant that migrates in the

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36 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

search of a job. In Saudi Arabia one of the important

elements of societal culture is the Islamic work ethics.

The manager has to adopt the leadership styles

according to the Islamic teachings and this factor

overwhelmingly affects the job description of an

employee as discussed by Mellahi, and Wilkinson

(2014). The dilemma is that not much resistance will

be faced in the Arab as its principles are based on the

Islamic values but the Western philosophies founded

will hinder in the way of complete implementation.

Therefore, Saudi Arabia is required to keep a balance

between the collectivism-individualism in order to

maintain and preserve the diversified workforce

present in different parts of their industry. The

satisfied workforce will strive towards the better

accomplishment of the prescribed objectives of an

organization and on a longer term country’s economic

betterment (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, 2007).

Over the past 15 fifteen years Saudi Arabia has

invested immensely in Human Resource functions and

development (HRD). This effort was done in order to

raise an average skill level and to compete with the

recent developments in the labor markets and hence,

satisfying the employees for the better outcomes. The

most basic and essential Human Resource function is

recruitment and the advancements in the market is

forcing the Saudis to look for new ways of managing

HR and the manager-subordinate relationship. The

traditional culture is used to hire-fire the employees

and employ employees who fear the authority (Bhuian

SN & AbdulMuhmin, 1995). The new practices have

altered the organizational climate and is ubiquitously

leading to a new and advanced mindset towards

manager-employee relationship. The approach to

HRM which says ‘one size fits all’ is not valid

anymore in this Gulf Country Council (GCC) region.

For the time being, provided in the literature, the old

ways for recruiting and managing foreigners coexist

with new ways of adjusting the locals.

Methodology

This section begins with aim of explaining the best and

crucial methodology adopted for this research; to look

for the HRM practices and its impact on the societal,

political and economic culture of the biggest country

of the Gulf region, Saudi Arabia. The chosen

methodology was implemented based on the existing

literature on different sources. This research work has

been carried out through the case study due to

numerous benefits provided by this approach.

One of the benefits is that a case study results in the

ideal medium for examining the not known ideology,

such as Saudi Arabia and its newly adopted techniques

to benefit their employees. In addition, case study

provides a known environment of the investigation

which may not be exactly the same but a similar

surrounding, that is not possible with other

approaches. Moreover, the case study approach

provides an in-depth practical approach rather than

just a theoretical approach, which is one of the crucial

consideration in this research area.

Since this research is based on examining and finding

the impact of Arabian culture on the HRM functions,

therefore, the type of case study chosen was an

exploratory one. The unit of analysis or the sample

people were chosen to be the senior personnel of HR

that is HR managers, as they are people having an

insightful field knowledge and experience. Exploring

the vast subject of the research, it was evident that a

single approach could not be sufficient to satisfy the

research’s aims and questions. Therefore, the research

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37 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

found a mixed-methods approach to be the most

appropriate one. Each approach has its own pros and

cons that could be confronted through the utilization

of a mixed-method strategy.

After labelling the mixed-methods methodology, the

techniques developed by Miles and Huberman (1994)

were implemented to make the most out of the data

collection process, validating those findings and

testing the credibility and generalizability of the

process. Then, the participants of the unit analysis

were examined and the sample size was incorporated

for the testing of the quantitative part of the process.

An additional information was given regarding the

participants for the accuracy of the generalizability. A

sample size of 200 was selected, as the organization

approved to include majority of employees in the

study. Detailed descriptions of the interview templates

and questionnaires were designed on a large scale

during the data collection process. The interview and

questionnaire designs were completely based on the

literature findings, as this is an exploratory research.

Discussion and Analysis

Once the suitable and appropriate framework and

methodology was finalized for the study, the data

collected from the former process can commence

producing findings. This process is carried out to

facilitate the comparisons between the data collection

findings and the previous findings existing in the

literature. This process began from the distribution of

the questionnaires till conducting the interviews from

the unit analysis samples. This step is crucial from

every aspect as it entails the tools required for the

research to move to the next and final stage that is

conclusion and outcome. Furthermore, this research

has been conducted to investigate the impact and

effect of HRM practices on the multiple sectors of

Saudi Arabia instead of just comparing the sectors

against each other. As mentioned previously, this

research was based on an aim of exploring the

impactof HRM practices on the societal, economic and

political culture of Saudi Arabia. Those five HRM

functions include; recruitment, sources, performance

appraisal, training and development, compensation

and benefits, job desirability. This research is carried

out within the public and private sectors of the industry

through a case study approach. A case study was

chosen on the SAEI- Saudi Aerospace Engineering

Industries. As this sector was going through a process

of privatization, the time the research was conducted,

therefore, it provided information from both of the

sectors.

The research questions were produced in such a way

that it assisted the efforts of the investigation by

answering the desired questions and accomplishing

the set objectives. This study basically had four main

objectives and this research has helped in achieving all

those four objectives. These objectives included

studying the impact of societal culture of Saudi Arabia

on the five HRM functions, having an understanding

of the initiated HRM practices in private and public

sectors from the case study of SAEI, comparing the

currently in place HRM practices and policies in this

particular industry from the existing literature

available. The questions included in the questionnaire

basically targets the main objective and aim of the

study, the other questions augment the Saudi societal

culture and the HRM functions in practice.

This research is carried out with the main target of

objectifying the outcomes of the data collected from

the case study of the Saudi Aerospace Engineering

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38 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

Industries. Moreover, the findings of this research will

be helpful in utilizing the outcomes and fulfilling the

research aims and answering the questions. This study

will possibly be helpful for the future as it provides a

much generalized framework and contains those

crucial pointers which are essential to be considered

by both the sectors of the industry that is private and

public sector.

So, basically this study was carried out with involving

the participants through the interactive interview and

by identifying how those participants were qualified

for the investigation. The first practice of HRM that

was explored was the job desirability. The department

which requires to fill out the vacant position advertise

the desired skills in an applicant. These set of desired

skills were forwarded to the HR department to look

into the applicant’s database and match the ideal

candidate. Furthermore, the HR managers revealed the

factors that increase the job desirability; high and

competent salaries, free travelling allowances and job

security. Moreover, the element of collectivism

increases the chances of filling the job vacancy sooner

as revealed by the Saudi applicants. This means that

team work is more preferred over the individualism.

This aspect matches with the ideology of the higher

management of the SAEI, which strives towards the

promotion of team work and unity among the

employees to achieve organizations’ objectives.

The second element is the recruiting sources, the

interview process identified the most strong source is

the direct online application which the candidates fill

out by going through the requirements. This source is

considered to be quick and easy moreover, the cost is

minimum as it is online. However, the local applicants

have shown preference over recommendation and

reference friends and family members. HR mangers

stated that the recruitment sources could be figured out

by the organization if they find a suitable candidate for

the vacant positon. The recommendation source has

shown a strong relation between Saudi culture and

recruitment sources (Saudi Arabian Monetary

Agency, 2007). One HR practice that did not show any

affect upon it by the Saudi culture was the

performance appraisal process, revealed by the

findings. The HR management stated that appraisal

process has a standardized stance throughout the

organization with minor amendments depending on

the department conducting the performance appraisal.

Providing feedback is also non-related to the societal

culture of the Saudi Arabia. Managers stated that

feedback is provided through the e-mail as it is the

most practical and convenient way, thus confirming

the weak relation between the two aspects of the study.

The compensation and benefits’ element illustrated a

strong relation with the Saudi culture. The HR

managers revealed that the available choice of rewards

and benefits are given to the employees. The

employees form a preferred type of rewards and they

choose freely. These rewards combine the both types

that is; financial and non-financial benefits. However,

the studied, that on the long run, employees prefer

financial benefits over the non-financial ones.

Another theme exhibited the same relation with the

societal culture, training programs. HR managers

noted that societal culture plays a crucial part in every

aspect of training programs. One of the commonly

practiced training program is the linguistic skills

training. As Arabic is the native and local language in

Arabia so employees are given training to have an

expertise on the English language to perform more

efficiently and effectively.

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39 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

Moving forward to the questionnaires,this was filled

out and involved 200 engineers from the SAEI. The

first element that was taken under consideration was

the job desirability. In this element various aspects

were considered which included the most important

aspects candidates consider when looking for a job.

The highest priority was given to the compensation

and benefits offered by the organization, with job title

having a second priority. The second aspect was how

employees preferred to accomplish a task. More than

half that is 65% employees preferred working in

teams. Now the focus is on the second element that is

recruitment sources. In this element two themes were

considered that is whether the employees prefer

personal sources or impersonal sources. Personal

sources were over-powered by 88% of the employees

hence, leaving behind the impersonal sources with

12%. The second theme which was focused was the

sources the unit analysis personnel look for when

looking for a job. 33% of the applicants preferred

direct online application and the second source

appealing was the recommendation by friends and

family members, having 23% votes (Ministry of

Economy and Planning 2008).

The third element studied was the performance

appraisal methods. The first aspect studied under this

element was the selection of the performance appraisal

methods. Majority of the engineers chose direct

method based on the performance and objectives,

having a 66% preference, while 34% chose an indirect

or informal approach. The second aspect focused was

whether engineers prefer to be appraised individually

or in a group. The investigation revealed that majority

prefer to be appraised individually, that is 54% while

the rest 46% voted for group appraisals.

The fourth element of questionnaire was the most

important aspect in the eyes of an employee,

compensation and benefits. The theme was the type of

compensation system to be adopted in an organization.

Majority preferred equality in the system 81% and the

rest of 19% preferred equity. The second aspect of

compensation and benefits was the type of rewards

engineers preferred. 74% of the unit analysis sample

voted for the financial rewards over the long run, while

26% chose non-financial rewards (Ministry Of

Economy and Planning 2008). According to the

findings of this particular study, that is based on the

three basic questions of the investigation and in an

effort of answering the second two questions, the

investigation has successfully been able to find out the

relation between the impact of the societal culture of

Saudi Arabia and HRM practices. As for the third

question, this study has explored the preferred HRM

policies and practices within Saudi Arabia culture.

Moreover, the research objectives were covered with

consistent efforts throughout the research. The core of

this research was to have a know-how about the major

impact on HRM practices of Saudi Arabia societal

culture.

Furthermore, this research consisted the investigation

of the HRM practices within the public and private

sector of the Saudi industry, based on a single case

study of the SAEI, through the assistance of semi-

constructed interviews and questionnaires. As for the

third aspect of this study, it consisted of the currently

used and deployed HRM practices and policies,

particularly the five targeted HRM practices, which

would be useful in the further process of this study.

The final and the last aspect or objective of this study

can be utilized to compare with the existing literature

in order to improve the current HRM practices.

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40 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

Constructive conclusion could be derived out with the

help of this study and it could prove to be very helpful

in the near future in case to compare the study with the

existing literature. This study contributes to the

investigation carried out to study the impact and effect

of HRM practices on the GCC; Saudi Arabia. This

research covered the core and basic elements of HRM,

which includes; HRM functions, the employee

relations with the management, the level of

satisfaction employees get while working in a

particular organization, the structure of rewards and

benefits and how contented an employee as well as the

client is from the practices of HR. Moreover, most

importantly the role of HR in the biggest country of

Middle East; Saudi Arabia is studied significantly

throughout the investigation (Forstenlechner,2010).

Conclusion and Recommendation

This study was initiated with the aim of investigating

the impact of Saudi Arabian societal, political and

economic culture on five basic HRM practices that is,

Job desirability, recruitment sources, performance

appraisal, compensation and benefits, and training

programs. This aim was achieving through the set of

questions and interviews which were semi-

constructed, and covered the research objectives. The

questions of this research started with investigating

and studying the effect of the Saudi Arabian culture on

the five HRM practices within the public and private

sectors of the industry, which are consistently

highlighted in the comprehensive literature. In a

summarized context, three questions were put up in

this research, the second and third question played a

part of sub-questions in order to have a clear-cut

answer to the first question. The second sub-question

was constructed in such a way to find out the relation

between the societal culture of Saudi Arabia and the

basic five HRM practices within the organization in a

public and private sector. As for the third question, it

enquired about the preferred HRM practices with both

the sectors.

Several objectives were constructed in order to answer

the various research questions. The research objectives

were comprised of four main factors. The first

objective was to investigate the impact of Saudi

Arabian societal culture on the five HRM practices

based on the single case study of SAEI. Second, look

into the practiced HRM functions in both public and

private sectors, which was explored in one

organization, as SAEI was in the phase of transition-

from public to private- it was made possible to have an

overview of both the sectors under one roof. Third, to

complement the analysis conducted in the second

objective, that is to review the practiced HRM

practices and used it against the findings of the

existing literature. Fourth, to utilize the findings and

the analysis from the case study, develop

recommendations for future improvement of the HRM

practices within both the sectors of the economy that

is public and private.

This research comprised of a set of questions that were

asked through the semi-constructed questionnaire

from the individuals selected from the SAEI, basically

engineers. Initiating the research from the introduction

which comprises the HRM functions and the Saudi

Arabia society, that is quite diverse and is difficult to

follow ‘one size fits all’ approach throughout the

organization. It consisted the societal culture of this

particular Gulf country, within the public and private

sectors of the industry. The introduction also clarified

the main aim of the research. Looking at the research

questions and objectives closely the second dimension

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41 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

was to review the existing literature which was studied

after highlighting the research boundaries. This area

included the investigation of the impact of religion on

the work ethics and the impact of Saudi Arabian

societal culture on the HRM practices and covering the

collectivism-individualism dimension. This study

covered the five basic HRM practices; job desirability,

recruitment sources, performance appraisal, training

programs, and compensation and benefits. The third

aspect included the methodology adopted for this

investigation. A combination of mixed-method

approach and single case study was adopted. The best

organization to have a case study was considered to be

the SAEI. This organization was going through the

transition phase-public to private sector. Therefore, it

was easy to have and overview of both the sectors from

one organization. Mixed-method approach consisted

of three aspects; semi-constructed interviews, having

the employees fill out the questionnaires and visiting

the organizations in the region in person.

The research comprised of several stages. The first

stage included the development of research, selecting

an appropriate methodology to conduct the research,

covering the set research objectives, and constructing

the framework. This stage led to stage two which

comprised of data processing tools, gathering data and

analyses. The final stage included the findings of the

research, drawing conclusions and focusing on the

recommendation for the future research work.

Moreover, the validity of the research and particularly

the questionnaire was taken into consideration and it

was assured that the questionnaire is covering the

aspects from the ethical point of view.

Hence, in conclusion it can be stated that there is a

strong link between the societal culture of Saudi

Arabia and its impact on the HRM practices. Though

with the vast usage of e-Business this impact could be

minimized, as then the role of HR is not immense.

While the other aspect of this study could be seen with

massive transformation of the Saudi infrastructure,

there has been a need of employing the foreign

workforce into the country. This phenomenon has

made the link between the two comparing factors

weak. The foreign workers bring along their own

values and behaviors.While conducting this research,

at various stages opportunities to conduct future

research at this type of body, considered. The very first

and foremost level developed an opportunity to utilize

this framework and use it for the future reference with

any other organization. It is recommended to conduct

the study on a regional organization so that it could

contribute towards the unsorted regions. The second

and third level recommends, by utilizing this

framework for the local and international

organizations. This could give an idea of collectivism-

individualism and privatization process.

References

 Achoui, Mustapha M. (2009). Human resource

development in Gulf countries: an analysis of the

trends and challenges facing Saudi Arabia. Human

Resource Development International, 12 (1), 35-

46. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from

http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/13678860

802638826

 Bhuian SN &AbdulMuhmin AG (1995).

“Exploring the Job Satisfaction and Commitment

of Expatriate Marketers in 8audi Arabia,”

Proceedings of American Marketing Association

Summer Marketing Educators” Conference 6,

Washington, DC, 475-476.

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42 Escalating Research Volume 5 Issue 2 June, 2016

 Forstenlechner, I (2010) Workforce localization in

emerging Gulf economies: the need to fine-tune

HRM. Personnel Review Vol. 39 No. 1, 2010 pp.

135-152.

 Harry, Wes. (2007). Employment creation and

localization: the crucial human resource issues for

the GCC. Source: International Journal of Human

Resource Management, Volume 18, Number 1,

January 2007, pp. 132-146(15)

 K Mellahi, A Wilkinson (2014) Organizational

failure: a critique of recent research and a

proposed integrative framework International

Journal of Management Reviews 5 (1), 21-41

 K Randeree (2009) Strategy, Policy and Practice

in the Nationalisation of Human Capital: ‘Project

Emiratisation’ Research and Practice in Human

Resource Management 17 (1), 71-91 2009

 K Randeree(2012) Workforce nationalization in

the Gulf Cooperation Council states Center for

International and Regional Studies

 Mellahi, K. and Wood, G. (2001) ‘HRM in Saudi

Arabia’. In Budhwar, P. and Debrah, Y.

(eds)Human Resource Management in Developing

Countries. London: Routledge, pp. 135–52

Pakkiasamy D (2004). Saudi Arabia’s Plan for

Changing Its Workforce, Migration Policy Instiute

www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cf

m?id=264 Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency

(SAMA). (2006).

 Ministry of Economy and Planning (2008).

Ministry of Economy and Planning Report 2008.

www.mep.gov.sa. Saudi Arabia: Ministry of

Economy and Planning.

 Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (2007). Forty-

Second Annual Report. Research and Statistics

Department. Saudi Arabia: SAMA. World Bank.

Economic Developments and Prospects: Job

creation in Era of High Growth.

www.worldbank.org, 10 April 2007.

Presentation 5

Interviewing Candidates

Learning Outcomes

1. Define what is a job interview and why it is important.

2. Identify selection interview characteristics.

3. Conduct an Interview and what undermines interviews.

4. Provide guidelines for interviewees.

5. Give examples of most common questions asked and

6. Provide some suggested Questions.

What is A job Interview?

A conversation occurs between a potential employer and a job applicant where each one is trying to learn more about the other.

The process is a two-way road where employer is traveling toward a goal (right hiring), and the applicant is traveling toward a goal (right job).

The Importance of Interviews

During the process, the employer has the opportunity to appraise applicant’s qualifications, appearance and general fitness for the job opening. Meanwhile,

The applicant tries to learn more about the position, appraises the employer, and finds out if his/her needs and interests will be met.

Inviting an applicant to an interview, indicates that the employer has at least some interest.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–5

Selection Interview

Interview
structure

Interview administration

Selection Interview Characteristics

Interview
content

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–5

We can classify selection interviews according to:

1. How structured they are

2. Their “content”—the types of questions they contain

3. How the firm administers the interviews

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7–6

1. Interview Structure

Unstructured (nondirective) interview

Structured
(directive)
interview

Interview Structure Formats

Mixed Interview

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–6

In unstructured (or nondirective) interviews, the manager follows no set format. A few questions might be specified in advance. Most selection interviews fall in this category.

In structured (or directive) interviews, the employer lists job-oriented questions ahead of time, and possible predetermined answers for appropriateness and scoring.

Types of Structure of Interviews

Structured Interview: pre-set standardized questions used by the interviewer and asked to all candidates. It is also known as patterned or guided interview.

Unstructured Interview: The discussion is free-flowing and does not follow any formal rules and procedures. Questions are made up during the interview.

Mixed Interview: A combination of both methods, where during a pre-set questions, the applicant is asked spontaneous questions by the interviewer.

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7–8

2. Interview Content

Situational interview

Behavioral interview

Job-related interview

Types of Questions Asked

Stress
interview

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–8

We can also classify interviews based on the “content” or the types of questions asked in the interview. At work, situational, behavioral, and job-related questions are most important.

Types of Interview Content

Situational Interview: provide the candidates with a hypothetical situation and ask them how they would handle it. “What would you do if…..” It aims at revealing the ability to solve the problem presented.

Behavioral Interview: ask the candidates to recall past experience/s and describe how they did handle in. “Tell me about a time in the past when…” It aims at revealing the capability to solve an actual problem.

Continue

Job-related Interview: focus more on job-related requirements and skills to screen out potential qualified candidates. The responses, then, are grouped to create an effective definition or “critical requirements”

Stress Interview: The employer commonly uses stress interview for those jobs which are more stressful. A number of harsh, rapid-fire questions are put to the interviewee with intent to upset him. It seeks to know, how the applicant will respond to pressure.

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7–11

3. Administering the Interview

Unstructured sequential interview

Panel
interview

“To One Candidate”

Phone
interviews

Video/Web-assisted interviews

Computerized interviews

Mass
interview

“To Many Candidates”

Structured sequential interview

Ways in Which Interview Can be Conducted

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–11

Employers also administer interviews in various ways: one-on-one or by a panel of interviewers; sequentially or all at once; and computerized or personally.

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7–12

Conducting an Effective Interview

1

2

3

4

5

Being Systematic and Effective

Structure the interview.

Know the job.

Get organized.

Establish rapport.

Ask questions.

6

Take brief notes.

7

Close the interview.

8

Review the interview.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–12

You may not have the time or inclination to create a full-blown, structured situational interview. However, there is still a lot you can do to make your interviews more systematic and effective.

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7–13

What Can Undermine An Interview’s Usefulness?

Nonverbal behavior and impression management

Applicant’s personal characteristics

Interviewer’s inadvertent behavior

Factors Affecting An Interview’s Usefulness

First impressions (snap judgments)

Interviewer’s
misunderstanding
of the job

Candidate-order (contrast) error and pressure to hire

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–13

This slide summarizes potential interviewing errors to avoid:

• First impressions (snap judgments)

• Not clarifying what the job involves and requires

• Candidate-order error and pressure to hire

• Nonverbal behavior and impression management

• The effects of interviewees’ personal characteristics

• The interviewer’s inadvertent behavior

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7–14

Guidelines for Interviewees

Preparation is essential.

Uncover the interviewer’s real needs.

Relate yourself to the interviewer’s needs.

Think before answering.

Remember that appearance and enthusiasm are important.

Make a good first impression as it is difficult to be changed.

Ask questions.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–14

Before you get into a position where you have to interview others, you will probably have to navigate some interviews yourself. It’s therefore useful to apply these guidelines to navigating your own interviews.

Be Aware of Shortcut!!!

Halo effect:

A cognitive bias, where the interviewer makes a snap judgement about the applicant’s overall potential for the performance of the job, considering a single characteristic, like the way he/she talks, sits, dresses, speaks, or maintains eye contacts, etc.

Most Common Questions Asked

Where do you see yourself in 5 years time?

Answer in general terms such as:

“I want to learn and grow within my work, increase my skills, knowledge, and responsibilities. I enjoy challenge and my goal is to be the best whatever level I am working at”.

Continue

Describe yourself in one word..

“Result-Driven” = I set myself challenging goals and work hard to meet them. Successfully achieved a number of personal goals: upgrading problem solving skill and wining a swimming competition.

How do you define success in your job?

“By accomplishing goals, set by myself or others”.

“By making a worthwhile contribution to achieving company’s goals”.

“By adding value to the team and exceeds the manager’s expectations.”

Continue

Why did you leave your job?

“I feel I have reached the ceiling in my current and I am eager for a new challenge”.

Why do you want to join our company?

“The job you are offering appeals to me because I will be dealing directly with diverse clients which will help me develop my customer-service skills”.

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7–19

Examples of Questions That Provide Structure

Situational Questions

1. Suppose a more experienced coworker was not following standard work procedures and claimed the new procedure was better. Would you use the new procedure?

2. Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. What would you do?

Past Behavior Questions

3. Based on your past work experience, what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a coworker?

4. Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective?

Background Questions

5. What work experiences, training, or other qualifications do you have for working in a teamwork environment?

6. What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales?

Job Knowledge Questions

7. What steps would you follow to conduct a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety?

8. What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign?

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–19

Figure 7-2 illustrates several examples of structured job knowledge, situational, background or behavioral interview questions.

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7–20

Suggested Questions for Interviewing Applicants

Why did you choose this line of work?

What did you enjoy most about your last job?

What did you like least about your last job?

What has been your greatest frustration or disappointment on your present job? Why?

Why should we be hiring you?

What do you expect from this employer?

What are three things you will not do in your next job?

What would your last supervisor say your three weaknesses are?

What are your major strengths?

How can your supervisor best help you obtain your goals?

How did your supervisor rate your job performance?

What are your career goals during the next 1–3 years? 5–10 years?

How will working for this company help you reach those goals?

What did you do the last time you received instructions with which you disagreed?

What are some things about which you and your supervisor disagreed? What did you do?

Which do you prefer, working alone or working with groups?

What motivated you to do better at your last job?

Do you consider your progress in that job representative of your ability? Why?

Do you have any questions about the duties of the job for which you have applied?

Can you perform the essential functions of the job for which you have applied?

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7–20

Figure 7-3 contains a sampling of technical questions to be asked in interviews.

Presentation 5

Testing and Selection

Learning Outcomes

1. Define selection and why it is important.

2. Explain two results of selection decisions.

3. Introduce two basic selection tools.

4. List selection types of tests and how it is used.

5. Explain Basic testing concepts.

6. Discuss the contemporary issues related to selection.

HRM Process: Three Phases/Eight Steps

1. The first three activities, address Employment Planning: adding staff through recruitment, reducing staff through downsizing, and interview/selection process.

Once we determined the required numbers and types of people needed, the applicants pass the interview, and their CV’s are reviewed, the best candidate for the job is selected using the qualitative model of staffing.

Two Approaches:

Person-job fit approach (match person with job).

Person-organization fit approach (match person with culture).

Phase 1, Step 3:
What is Selection? Why it is Important?

Selection is predicting the applicant/s who will be successful if hired.

Three reasons for selecting the right employee:

Organizational performance– right employees contribute more to performance.

Costs of recruiting and hiring– right selection reduces costs.

Legal obligations and liability– avoid hiring employees with criminal records or other problems in which the employer can be held liable.

Selecting Job Applicants

Any selection decision can result in the four possible outcomes shown below where two outcomes would indicate correct decisions and two would indicate errors.

A decision is correct:

When the applicant who was predicted to be successful and was hired proved to be successful on the job, OR

When the applicant who was predicted to be unsuccessful and was not hired and would not have been able to do the job.

In the first case, we have successfully accepted; in the second case, we have successfully rejected.

Continue

A decision is NOT correct:

When we don’t hire an applicant whom, if hired, would have performed successfully on the job (reject errors) OR,

When we hire an applicant whom subsequently performed poorly

(accept error).

In the two cases we failed to take the right selection decision.

Selecting Job Applicants
Any selection decision can result in the four possible outcomes shown below where two outcomes would indicate correct decisions and two would indicate errors.

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7-7

Once the recruiting effort has developed a pool of applicants, the next step in the HRM process is to determine who is best qualified for the job. In essence, this selection process seeks to predict which applicants will be successful if hired.

Consider, for example, that any selection decision can result in the four possible outcomes shown in Exhibit 7-5, where two outcomes would indicate correct decisions and two would indicate errors.

A decision is correct when:

The applicant who was predicted to be successful and was hired or accepted proved to be successful on the job, or

When the applicant who was predicted to be unsuccessful and was therefore not hired or rejected would not have been able to do the job. In the former case, we have successfully accepted; in the latter case, we have successfully rejected.

Problems occur, however, when we reject applicants who, if hired, would have performed successfully on the job (called reject errors) or if we accepted applicants who subsequently performed poorly (called accept errors).

These problems are significant because reject errors not only mean increased selection costs because more applicants have to be screened but also can open the organization to charges of employment discrimination, especially if applicants from protected groups are disproportionately rejected.

Accept errors, on the other hand, cost the organization in terms of wasted training of the employee, the costs generated or profits forgone because of the employee’s incompetence, the cost of severance, and the subsequent costs of additional recruiting and selection screening.

The major intent of any selection activity is therefore to reduce the probability of making reject errors and accept errors while increasing the probability of making correct decisions. We do this by using reliable and valid selection procedures.

7

Selection Tools
Interviews and Tests

Interviews are the most universal selection device, along with the application form.

They are reliable and valid when structured, well organized, and limited to relevant questioning.

Behavioral or Situational interviews are more effective for predicting successful job performance than traditional interviews are.

The applicants are observed for what they say and how they behave.

Selection Tools: Tests

A test is basically a sample of a person’s cognition and behavior.

Different types of tests are used such as: intellectual, mechanical abilities, as well as behavioral tests.

A problem with the written intelligence tests is that they may not indicate the applicant’s job performance.

Therefore, Performance-Simulation Tests which are made up of actual job behavior are used as they are valid predictors of successful job performance.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Types of Tests

Cognitive abilities

Motor and physical abilities

Personality
and Behavior

What Different Tests Measure?

Current
achievement

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6–10

Cognitive tests include tests of general reasoning ability (intelligence) and tests of specific mental abilities like memory and inductive reasoning.

Tests of motor and physical abilities measure motor abilities, such as finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and reaction time.

Personality tests measure basic aspects of an applicant’s personality, such as introversion, stability, and motivation.

Achievement tests measure what someone has learned. Most of the tests you take in school are achievement tests. They measure your “job knowledge” in areas like economics, marketing, or human resources.

Basic Testing Concepts: Validity

Validity indicates whether a test is measuring what it is suppose to be measured.

The selection tool must be shown to be directly related to successful job performance.

It is the HR responsibility to verify the selection tool used.

Basic Testing Concepts: Reliability

Reliability addresses the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the same test.

If a test is reliable, any individual’s score should remain fairly stable over time, assuming that the characteristic being measured is also stable.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Sample Test on Cognition

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

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6–13

The short test in Figure 6-4 is intended to find out how prone you might be to on-the-job accidents.

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Test of Mechanical Comprehension

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

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6–14

The Test of Mechanical Comprehension in Figure 6-5 tests applicants’ understanding of basic mechanical principles.

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Self- Report Inventory
Personality Test: The “Big Five”

Extraversion

Emotional stability

Agreeableness

Openness to experience

Conscientiousness

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6–15

Industrial psychologists often focus on the “big five” personality dimensions: extraversion, emotional stability/neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.

Projective Tests

Projective Tests– Applicants offer responses to ambiguous scenes, words, or images that they project onto the test. The goal is to uncover the hidden attitudes, desires, emotions, and conflicts that are hidden from conscious awareness and can cause problems to an employee’s life.

Strengths include: used for screening job candidate and help predicting how people may behave in different situations, or with different people.

Weaknesses include: lack validity and reliability, highly subjective, and responses can be influenced by the examiner’s attitudes or the test settings.

(The Rorschach Inkblot Test, The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), The Draw-A-Person Test, and The House-Tree-Person Test). All used to collect qualitative information about the applicant.

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Projective Test “Rorschach Test”

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6–17

In the Rorschach Test sample in Figure 6-1, the psychologist asks the person to explain how he or she interprets an ambiguous picture. In such projective tests, it is more difficult to prove that the tests are measuring what they are said to measure, in this case, some trait of the person’s personality—that they’re valid.

Other Selection Methods

Investigations and Checks:

Reference and Background Employment Checks.

Criminal and Driving Records.

Why?

To verify actual information provided by applicants.

To uncover damaging information.

Note: giving someone a bad reference can drag employers into legal mess.

Defamation tends to harm the employee’s reputation.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6–18

To avoid negligent hiring mistakes, employers must check the candidate’s background thoroughly.

Continue

Achievement Tests (job knowledge).

Honesty Tests.

Physical Examinations.

Drug Tests.

Contemporary Issues in Selection
1. Workplace Diversity

Similarities and Differences among employees in terms of:

Age, race, cultural background, physical abilities and disabilities, religion, gender, and nationality.

Managers must learn how to manage diversity by maximizing the advantages and minimizing the disadvantages.

Another HRM issue facing managers is workforce diversity, which affects such basic HRM activities as recruitment, selection, and orientation. Improving workforce diversity requires managers to widen their recruiting net and turn to nontraditional recruitment sources such as women’s job networks, over-50 clubs, urban job banks, and disabled people’s training centers.

After a diverse set of applicants exists, selection must be non-discriminatory, applicants should be made comfortable with the organization’s culture, and management should express its desire to accommodate their needs.

Many organizations provide special workshops to raise diversity consciousness among current employees, as well as programs for new employees that focus on diversity issues. Some companies also have special mentoring programs to deal with the reality that lower-level female and minority managers have few role models with whom to identify.

20

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5–21

Recruiting A More Diverse Workforce

Single parents

Older workers

Welfare-to-work

Minorities and women

The disabled

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

5–21

Recruiting a diverse workforce isn’t just socially responsible. Given globalization and the rapid increase in minority, older worker, and women candidates, it is a necessity.

2. Sexual Harassment

Any unwanted action or activity of a sexual nature that explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, performance, or work environment.

Any form of unwelcome sexual behavior or say that is offensive, humiliating or intimidating.

It is against the law. Settlements are the largest financial risk facing companies today.

Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education

Sexual harassment is a serious issue in both public and private sector organizations. More than 12,000 complaints are filed with the EEOC each year, with more than 15 percent of the complaints filed by males. Settlements in some of these cases incurred a substantial

cost to the companies in terms of litigation. It’s estimated that sexual harassment is the single largest financial risk facing companies today

22

Harassment in Workplace

Results in:

Money lost in high rate of absenteeism and turnover,

Low productivity.

Low morality.

Occurs: from any powerful being upon the weaken one.

From men to women and vise versa.

From up to bottom and vise versa.

Among all co-workers.

Responsibility of HR Department

HR professionals must learn how to develop behavioral tests that can uncover an applicant’s readiness to act harassment in the workplace.

Policies and Procedures for preventing and handling sexual harassment must be developed and written in the employee handbook.

KSA’s Anti-Harassment Law came into effect on June, 8th, 2018 and considered a criminal offence (punishable act) for anyone to harass another by any statement, act or signal of a sexual nature by any mean, including the use of modern technology.

Assignment 2

A case study is given on BB

Presentation 8.2

Performance Appraisal Methods

Learning Outcomes

Introduce Ten different methods in apprising employees’ performance and the most three methods commonly used.

Illustrate each method by figures.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Performance Appraisal Methods

1

2

3

4

5

Alternation ranking

Graphic rating scale

Paired comparison

Forced distribution

Critical incident

6

7

8

9

10

Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

Narrative forms

Management by objectives (MBO)

Computerized and Web-based performance appraisal

Merged methods

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–3

Appraising performance requires choosing an appraisal tool, form, or methodology that provides an effective means for comparing a subordinate’s actual performance to the standards for his or her job.

1. Management by objective
the result approach

Dr. Hayat Habhab

MBO Approach is the most commonly used method in appraising the employee performance.

It is a method by which managers and subordinates are both involved in planning, organizing, communicating, debating, and controlling the departments’ workflow.

MBO Process

A comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program requiring:

Setting of organization’s goals

Setting of departmental goals

Discussion of departmental goals

Defining expected results (setting individual goals)

Conducting periodic performance reviews

Providing performance feedback

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–5

Employers use management by objectives (MBO) for one of two things. Many use it as the primary appraisal method. Others use it to supplement to a graphic rating or other appraisal method. MBO generally refers to the comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Using MBO

Setting unclear objective

Conflict with subordinates over objectives

Potential Problems with MBO

Time-consuming appraisal process

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–6

In using MBO, it is best to keep the guidelines for goal setting (SMART, specific, and so on) in mind. Setting objectives with the subordinate sometimes turns into a tug-of-war, with the supervisor pushing for higher quotas and the subordinate pushing for lower ones.

The more that is known about the job and the person’s ability, the more confident a supervisor can be about setting standards.

2. Forced Distribution Method

Supervisors are forced to distribute ratings into pre-specified performance distribution.

They are given a series of MCQ regarding the employee.

Each question asks to select one choice from a list that contains only positive or negative .traits or behaviors related to performance

“See the figure below”.

Forced Distribution Method

3. Graphic Rating Scale

Lists traits such as quality, communication skills or teamwork.

Use a scale of range of performance values from “unsatisfactory” to “outstanding”, or from “below expectations” to “role model” for each trait.

“see the figure below”.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–9

Employers use management by objectives (MBO) for one of two things. Many use it as the primary appraisal method. Others use it to supplement to a graphic rating or other appraisal method. MBO generally refers to the comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program.

Sample Graphic
Rating Performance
Rating Form

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–10

Figure 9-2 shows one graphic rating scale. A graphic rating scale lists traits (such as “quality and reliability” or “teamwork”) and a range of performance values (from “unsatisfactory” to “outstanding,” or “below expectations” to “role model”) for each trait.

Graphic Rating Scale, cont’d.

Some graphic rating forms assess objectives.

The employee and supervisor fill in the objectives’ section at the beginning of the year.

Then they assess results and set new objectives as part of the next appraisal. (see the figure below)

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–11

Employers use management by objectives (MBO) for one of two things. Many use it as the primary appraisal method. Others use it to supplement to a graphic rating or other appraisal method. MBO generally refers to the comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Appraisal Form for Assessing Competencies and Specific Objectives

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–12

Some graphic rating forms assess several things. Figure 9-4 (Section I) assesses the employee’s performance relating to both competencies and objectives. The employee and supervisor would fill in the objectives section at the start of the year, and then assess results and set new ones as part of the next appraisal.

Graphic Rating Scale cont’d

Another graphic rating forms assess the competencies expected from an employee to develop and exhibit, such as “problem solving”, maintain effective work relationships with co-workers, and building effective teamwork.

(see the figure below).

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

FIGURE Appraisal Form for Assessing Both Competencies and Specific Objectives

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–14

Some graphic rating forms assess several things. In Figure 9-4, Section II illustrates the competencies an employee is expected to develop and exhibit such as “identifies and analyzes problems” (Problem Solving), and “maintains harmonious and effective work relationships with co-workers and constituents” (Teamwork).

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

BARS

Measures an employee’s performance against specific examples of behavior that are given a number rating.

Differs from Behavioral Observation Scale in that employees in BOS are evaluated according to how frequently they exhibit a required behavior for effective performance.

Advantages of BARS

More accurate

Clearer standards

Provide Feedback

Independent dimensions

Consistency

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–15

A behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) is an appraisal tool that anchors a numerical rating scale with specific examples of good or poor performance. Its proponents say it provides better, more equitable appraisals than do the other appraisal tools. It takes more time to develop a BARS, but the tool has several advantages.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

FIGURE
Example of a Behaviorally
Anchored Rating Scale for the Dimension
Salesmanship Skills

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–16

Figure 9-8 presents an example of a section of a final BARS instrument that lists the critical incidents that serve as behavioral anchors on the performance scale for the dimension Salesmanship Skills.

5. Alternation Ranking Method

Ranking employees from best to worst. Supervisors alternately choose and list employees who are the highest/lowest on the characteristics/trait being measured

(see the figure below).

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FIGURE Scale for Alternate Ranking of Appraisee

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–18

Ranking employees from best to worst on a trait or traits is another option. Supervisors choosing the alternation ranking method would use a form like that in Figure 9-5 to alternately choose and list employees who are the highest on the characteristic being measured and the ones who are the lowest.

6. Paired Comparison Method

Supervisors pair and compare every subordinate with every other subordinate for every trait such as quality or quantity of work by using a chart.

(see the figure below).

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

FIGURE Ranking Employees by the Paired Comparison Method

Note: + means “better than.” – means “worse than.” For each chart, add up the number of +’s in each column to get the highest ranked employee.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–20

The paired comparison method helps make the ranking method more precise. For every trait (quantity of work, quality of work, and so on), you pair and compare every subordinate with every other subordinate. In the paired comparison method, you make a chart, as in Figure 9-6, of all possible pairs of employees for each trait.

7. Critical Incidents Method

Supervisor uses a log of positive and negative examples of a subordinate’s work-related behavior.

Then they meet, periodically, to discuss performance.

The figure below, provides an example of what performance an assistant plant manager must improve as his log shows that he let inventory storage costs rise 15%.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

TABLE Examples of Critical Incidents for Assistant Plant Manager

Continuing Duties Targets Critical Incidents
Schedule production
for plant
90% utilization of personnel and machinery in plant; orders delivered on time Instituted new production scheduling system; decreased late orders by 10% last month; increased machine utilization in plant by 20% last month
Supervise procurement of raw materials and on inventory control Minimize inventory costs while keeping adequate supplies on hand Let inventory storage costs rise 15% last month; over-ordered parts “A” and “B” by 20%; under-ordered part “C” by 30%
Supervise machinery
maintenance
No shutdowns due
to faulty machinery
Instituted new preventative maintenance system for plant; prevented a machine breakdown by discovering faulty part

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–22

With the critical incident method, the supervisor keeps a log of positive and negative examples (critical incidents) of a subordinate’s work-related behavior. Every 6 months or so, supervisor and subordinate meet to discuss the latter’s performance, using the incidents as examples.

In Table 9-1, one of the assistant plant manager’s continuing duties was to supervise procurement and to minimize inventory costs. The critical incident log shows that the assistant plant manager let inventory storage costs rise 15%; this provides an example of what performance she must improve in the future.

8. Narrative Forms Method

A written analysis of an employee’s performance which is very individualized and qualitative method in nature.

Supervisor’s narrative assessment helps an employee in understanding where the performance is good or bad, and how to improve it.

The figure below, provides an example of all or part of the narrative written appraisal.

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FIGURE
Appraisal-Coaching
Worksheet

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–24

All or part of the written appraisal may be in narrative form as shown in Figure 9-7. The supervisor’s narrative assessment aids the employee in understanding where his or her performance was good or bad, and how to improve that performance.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9. Computerized and Web-Based PA Systems

Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM) Systems

Use computer network technology to allow managers access to their employees’ computers and telephones.

Managers can monitor the employees’ rate, accuracy, and time spent working online.

Allow managers to keep notes on subordinates.

Notes can be merged with employee ratings.

Software generates written text to support appraisals.

Allows for employee self-monitoring and self-evaluation.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–25

Employers increasingly use computerized or Web-based performance appraisal systems that enable them to keep computerized notes on subordinates during the year. The notes can then be merged with ratings of employees on several performance traits. The software then generates written text to support each part of the appraisal. Most appraisal software combines several of the basic methods such as graphic ratings plus critical incidents or BARS.

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) systems use computer network technology to allow managers access to their employees’ computers and telephones. They allow managers to monitor the employees’ rate, accuracy, and time spent working online.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

10. Using IT to Support Performance Management

Assign financial and nonfinancial goals to each team’s activities along the strategy map chain of activities leading up to the company’s overall strategic goals.

Inform all employees of their goals.

Use IT-supported tools like scorecard software and digital dashboards to continuously monitor and assess each team’s and employee’s performance.

Take corrective action at once.

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–26

This slide sums up how IT-supported performance management process supports performance management.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

FIGURE Performance Management Report

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9–27

Information technology does enable management to automate performance management. Figure 9-14 presents an example of an employee’s online performance management report.

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