exam 7 this exam has a total of 18 points each point corresponds to a numbered question the numbered question is to be answered

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This exam has a total of 18 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “These include neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), widely expressed ion channel receptors that modulate most neurotransmission in the brain, including nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission.” Where in the neuron is this? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 1 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Extensive preclinical as well as clinical studies have described beneficial effects by nAChR ligands on condition and mood, and preclinical studies have also extensively investigated nAChR-mediated neuroprotective effects in the context of nigrostriatal denervation.” Where do the nAChR ligands bind? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Furthermore, chronic treatment with both selective and non-selective nAChR agonists has been shown to alleviate LID in multiple animal models.” Does this agree with your answer to question 3? Yes or no? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 4 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “While the specific mechanisms of these antidyskinetic effects are not completely understood, they are hypothesized to be mediated by receptor desensitization.” Is this hypothesis an alternate/alternative hypothesis or a null hypothesis? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 6 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “One important regulator of synaptic plasticity is the brain-derived neuurotrophic factor (BDNF), raising the hypothesis that changes in BDNF levels or function would be associated with LID.” Is this hypothesis an alternate/alternative hypothesis or a null hypothesis? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 8 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “.. to study whether long-term treatment with nAChR agonists can alleviate LID in conditions of severe unilateral dopaminergic denervation.” Write this quote as a null hypothesis. (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “.. to study whether long-term treatment with nAChR agonists can alleviate LID in conditions of severe unilateral dopaminergic denervation.” Write this quote as an alternate/alternative hypothesis. (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “… we also investigated the effects of the long-term levodopa and nicotine treatments on the BDNF protein in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC).” Write this quote as a null hypothesis. (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “… we also investigated the effects of the long-term levodopa and nicotine treatments on the BDNF protein in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC).” Write this quote as an alternate/alternative hypothesis. (1 point)

  1. In the results section the authors wrote “Treatment with escalating doses of the α7 partial agonist AZD0328 for 5 days (Mon-Fri) per dose failed to reduce total dyskinesia (Fig. 3a).” Looking at Fig. 3a, how does it show that α7 partial agonist AZD0328 failed to reduce total dyskinesia? (1 point)

  1. In the results section the authors wrote “BDNE levels in the lesioned striatum had a positive linear correlation with total dyskinesia scores at the time of the last dyskinesia measurement (n = 12, r = 0.582, P = 0.047). Since this is a positive correlation, state what this means for BDNE levels and total dyskinesia score, as a positive correlation. (1 point)

  1. Did this study show that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists can alleviate LID? Yes or no? (1 point)

  1. Why did you answer yes or no for question 16? (1 point)

  1. Quote something as evidence or proof that your answer to question 17 is correct. (1 point)
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